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Prof. David R. Jackson ECE Dept.PowerPoint Presentation

Prof. David R. Jackson ECE Dept.

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Applied Electricity and Magnetism

Spring 2014

Prof. David R. Jackson

ECE Dept.

Notes 2

Notes prepared by the EM Group University of Houston

Definition: No time variation. In terms of frequency, f= 0 [Hz]

The electromagnetic field splits into two independent parts:

Electrostatics: (q, E) charges produce electric field

Magnetostatics: (I, B) current produces magnetic field

The static approximation is usually accurate for d << 0

(d is the dimension of the circuit or device).

Example: f = 60 [Hz]

Note: This is an exact (defined) value since 1983.

0 = c / f

c = 2.99792458 108 [m/s]

f = 60 [Hz]

This gives: 0 = 4.9965106 [m]

= 4,996.5 [km]

= 3,097.8 [miles]

Clearly, most circuits fall into the static-approximation category at 60 [Hz]!

The following are special cases of electromagnetics at low frequency:

- Circuit theory (e.g., ECE 2300)
- Electronics
- Power engineering
- Magnetics (design of motors, generators, transformers, etc.)

Examples of high-frequency systems that are not modeled by statics:

- Antennas
- Transmission lines
- Microwaves
- Optics

ECE 3317

e

Atom

p

proton: q= 1.602 10-19 [C]

Ben Franklin chose the convention of positive and negative charges.

electron: q= -1.602 10-19 [C]

1 [C] = (1 / 1.602 x10-19) protons = 6.242 x 1018 protons

Ben Franklin

1) Volume charge density v[C/m3]

a) Uniform (homogeneous) volume charge density

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

v

Example: protons floating in space.

V

Uniform cloud of charge density

Q

b) Non-uniform (inhomogeneous) volume charge density

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

v(x, y, z)

dV

Non-uniform cloud of charge density

dQ

Example: protons are closer together as we move to the right.

2) Surface charge density s[C/m2]

Example: protons are sprayed onto a sheet of paper.

S

s(x, y, z)

Non-uniform sheet of surface charge density

Q

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

Non-uniform

Uniform

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

l

l (x, y, z)

Q

3) Line charge density l[C/m]

Example: protons are sprayed onto a thread.

Non-uniform line charge density

Uniform

Non-uniform

z

v = 2r [C/m3], r < a

A separable integrand with fixed limits of integration.

Note: This is a non-uniform (inhomogeneous) charge density.

a

Find: Q

y

x

dV

Separable integrand

Compare:

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