Chapter 5: Thinking Critically and Creatively. Menu Options:. Lecture/ Discussion. Chapter Exercises. Audio Chapter Summary. Focus TV. Other. © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. You’re About to Discover…. How focused thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking are defined
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Chapter 5: Thinking Critically and Creatively Menu Options: Lecture/ Discussion Chapter Exercises Audio Chapter Summary Focus TV Other © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
You’re About to Discover… • How focused thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking are defined • How a four-part model of critical thinking works • How to analyze arguments, assess assumptions, and consider claims • How to avoid mistakes in reasoning • What metacognition is and why it’s important • How to become a more creative thinker
Rethinking Thinking • Learn to think, not reiterate. • True thinking is intentional, not just idle daydreaming. • We never stop thinking… but what is focused thinking? • Focused thinking is thinking critically and creatively. • Critical Thinking is • evaluating ideas. • Creative Thinking is producing new ideas. “‘Knowledge is power.’ Rather, knowledge is happiness. To have knowledge, deep broad knowledge, is to know truth from false and lofty things from low.” Helen Keller, American author, activist, and lecturer
What Is Critical Thinking? Chapter Exercise p. 105+ p. 107
I. Reasoning: Induction vs. Deduction Deductivearguments go from broad generalizations to specific conclusions Inductivearguments go from specific observations to general conclusions
I. Reasoning : Relevance and Adequacy Two things are required to judge the soundness of an argument: Relevance Adequacy Look at an example: “I don’t see why all students have to take an introductory writing course. It’s a free country. Students shouldn’t have to take courses they don’t want to take.” Is the statement “It’s a free country relevant? What does living in a free country have to do with courses that community college students are required to take? Nothing. Now look at this example: “Everyone taking Math 100 failed the test last Friday. I took the test last Friday. Therefore, I will probably get an F in the course.” How many tests are left in the course? What other assignments figure into students’ grades? The information present may not be adequate to predict an F in the course.
I. Reasoning: Analyzing Arguments Sound or Unsound? Is it Relevant? Is it Adequate? Is it Logical? “The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” Joseph Joubert, French moralist
I. Reasoning: Assessing Assumptions Assumptions are things you take for granted, and they can limit your thinking. Understand your own assumptions and see an argument in new ways. “One day Kerry celebrated her birthday. Two days later her older twin brother, Harry, celebrated his birthday. How could that be?” Think! What assumptions are you making about this puzzle? “Great minds discuss ideas. Average minds discuss events. Small minds discuss people. Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady
I. Reasoning: Considering Claims • Generally speaking, be cautious of claims that: • are supported by unidentified sources (“Experts claim . . . ”). • are made by a person or company who stands to gain(“Brought to you by the makers of . . .”). • come from a single person claiming his experience as the norm(“I tried it and it worked for me!”). • use a bandwagon appeal(“Everybody’s doing it.”). • mislead with statistics(“over half” when it’s really only 50.5 percent). Chapter Exercise p. 106+ © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
Simple vs. Complex Reasoning Focus TV: Critical Thinking p. 111
Help Stamp Out Faulty Reasoning • False Cause and Effect • Personal Attack • Unwarranted Assumption • Emotional Appeal • False Authority • Hasty Conclusion • Straw Man • Shifting the Burdon of Proof • Oversimplification/Overgeneralization • Either/Or Thinking Chapter Exercise p. 113+
II. Problem Solving: How-To’s STEP 1: Define the problem. STEP 2: Brainstorm possible options. STEP 3: Devise criteria to evaluate each option. STEP 4: Evaluate each option you’ve proposed. STEP 5: Choose the best solution. STEP 6: Plan how to achieve the best solution. STEP 7: Implement the solution and evaluate results.
III. Decision Making:What’s Your Style? Directive Analytical Conceptual Behavioral
Thinking about Your Thinking: Metacognition In short, Metacognition is thinking about your thinking. • Improve your metacognitive skills: • Develop a plan of action • Monitor your plan • Evaluate your plan
Becoming a Better Critical Thinker • Admit when you don’t know. • Realize you have buttons that can be pushed. • Learn more about the opposition. • Trust and verify. • 5. Remember that critical thinking is the foundation of all academic achievement. © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
Thinking Creatively:What’s Your Style? Intuitive Innovative Imaginative Inspirational
Ten Ways to Become a More Creative Thinker • Find new eyes. • Accept your creativity. • Make your thoughts visible. • Generate lots of ideas. • Don’t overcomplexify. • Capitalize on your mistakes. • Let it flow. • Bounce ideas off others. • Stop searching for the “right” answer. • Detach your self-concept.
VARKActivity Exercise 5.4, p. 124
And Just Why Is Critical Thinking Important? Chapter Exercise p. 105+ Chapter 5: Exercises and Activities Chapter Exercise p. 106+ Critical Searching on the Internet Rocky Mountain State University Case Study Chapter Exercise p. 113+ Audio Chapter Summary Audio Summary of Chapter 5 Focus TV: Critical Thinking Focus TV: Critical Thinking Insight Action Back to Menu © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
And Just Why Is Critical Thinking Important? Exercise 5.1, p. 105+
Critical Searching on the Internet Exercise 5.2, p. 106+
Rocky Mountain State University Case Study Exercise 5.3, p. 113+
Insight Action p. 106+ p. 120 p. 124
FOCUS TVCriticalThinking Focus TV Discussion ?s Back to Menu Back to Activities
FOCUS correspondent Anna Carolina says that “Ghandi once said: Those who know how to think need no teachers.” What does she mean? • Anna seems to misunderstand the term “critical thinking” at the beginning of this episode. What does she think critical thinking is? • Can you remember the levels of thinking depicted while Professor Nicholson describes what critical thinking is to Anna? See if you can list the questions for each of the pyramid’s three levels. • “Complex reasoning isn’t that complex, after all” says our FOCUS correspondent. “We just have to ask ourselves tougher questions.” Do you agree? Why or why not? • 5. By the end of the episode, Professor Nicholson understands the joke being played on him. What does he mean by asking, “This isn’t one of those Borat things, is it?”? Focus TV Discussion Questions
F CUSPoints FOCUS on Community College Success An Interactive Teaching Tool FOCUS on COLLEGE SUCCESS CONCISE Edition Chapter 5 Constance Staley and Aren Moore