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What is Prehistory?. Everything before writing. Prehistory. Chapter 1 Pages 2-23. How can we know about prehistory?. Archaeology study of past through left over artifacts Anthropology study of human life and culture Biology of humans and their ancestors how we are related

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what is prehistory
What is Prehistory?
  • Everything before writing


Chapter 1

Pages 2-23

how can we know about prehistory
How can we know about prehistory?
  • Archaeology
  • study of past through left over artifacts
  • Anthropology
  • study of human life and culture
  • Biology of humans and their ancestors
  • how we are related
  • how do we work
  • Dating Finds
  • determining the age
  • C14 dating
  • Ar
  • etc.
third chimpanzee
Third chimpanzee?
  • Title of book by Jared Diamond
  • argument over how man evolved, what makes man different and the same, and mankind’s future
  • Science has placed Humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in the evolutionary tree like this
  • Hominids
  • apes that walk upright
  • earliest fossil evidence dates back 4 million years
  • Likely was a gradual development
  • walking upright
  • thumbs
  • tools

Australopithecus afarensis

homo sapiens and homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens and Homo Neanderthalensis
  • Emerged about 200,000 years ago
  • As with most hominids probably emerged first in east Africa
  • Neanderthals found in Europe
  • colder climates
  • used furs
  • burial of dead
homo sapiens sapiens
Homo sapiens sapiens
  • Anatomically the same as us
  • Appear in Africa about 150-200,000 years ago
  • Spread “out of Africa” about 100,000 years ago
  • replace/eliminate/out compete other hominids
  • Moving to a new place
  • What does it take to migrate?
  • depends where your going
  • advances in technology
  • clothing, fire, tools, etc.
paleolithic age1
Paleolithic Age
  • Old Stone Age
  • 2,500,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE
  • BCE= Before Common Era (before year 0)
hunters and gatherers
Hunters and Gatherers
  • Early man lived in small hunting and food gathering groups numbering 20-30 people
  • In general men hunted while the women and the children gathered berries, fruit, nuts, wild grain, and sea food.
  • Women were responsible for more of the caloric intake than men.
  • These early people were nomads
  • Nomads- people who wander to find food
what makes humans different
What makes humans different?
  • Humans modify their environment NOT just adapt
  • fire, clothing, shelters, modern conveniences (AC, fridge, roads, etc.)
  • Early humans did this to migrate and survive
  • Ice Age
  • 100,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE
  • Represents daily life
  • hunting scenes
  • Also used for religious purposes
  • Around 30,000 years ago evidence emerges of man’s belief in a spiritual world
  • Man believed spirits and forces resided in animals, objects, and even dreams
  • They drew paintings of these animals on cave walls
  • These beliefs are called animism
  • Why would people revere symbols of pregnant women?
  • Why would they bury their dead?
  • Why would they bury their dead with items from their life?
  • Why would they paint drawings of their prey?
neolithic revolution1
Neolithic Revolution
  • Guess what Neolithic means?
  • New Stone Age
  • Starts at the end of the last Ice Age ~8,000 BCE
  • Why do you think it is a revolution?
  • Start of systematic agriculture
  • domestication of animals
  • wasn’t sudden it was a gradual process started before
  • wasn’t that common at beginning
  • took thousands of years for more people to farm than hunt/gather
farming domestication of animals
Farming/Domestication of Animals
  • How do you think it started?
  • garbage heaps, leftovers grew came back to them
  • animals became dependent on humans for survival
  • What are advantages?
  • free time, not everyone focused on food production
  • People can become specialists(pottery, writing, building, etc.)
  • higher caloric intake
  • larger population
disadvantages of agriculture
Disadvantages of Agriculture?
  • Introduced inequality, women rear children men, do the farming, children work the fields.
  • More disease
  • Altering local environment towards ecological shifts including collapse in certain regions
  • Less diverse diet as hunting and gathering, meaning less healthy people. Fossil remains show a 50% increase in malnutrition.
  • Hunting and gathering societies spent about 3 hours a day on food acquisition. During planting season, people could spend 12 hours a day on food production.
where it starts
Where it starts
  • Agriculture developed in 3 separate regions independently. Maybe as many as 5
  • First, in the Middle East around 11,000 years ago along the Black Sea Wheat/ Barley
  • Second, in Southern China along the Hueng He (Yellow River) 9,000 years ago- Rice
  • Third, in Central Mexico around 7,000 years ago- Maize (corn).
  • There is evidence that Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern China might have developed agriculture independently.
  • Wherever agriculture developed it spread. This is called diffusion.
  • What did they grow first?
  • grains
  • types of grass
end of neolithic
End of Neolithic
  • Discover metallurgy 4,000-3,000 BCE
  • heat metal it melts pour into molds
  • Copper first used
  • soft metal melts easily
  • Bronze
  • copper and tin
  • harder than just copper
  • Bronze Age 3,000-1,200 BCE
  • Iron Age
  • harder metal than bronze
farming village to civilization
Farming Village to Civilization
  • More people living and working together
  • More need for organization
  • division of labor
  • social organization
  • governments
  • First types of government?
  • autocracies (one ruler)
  • monarchy, dictators, etc.
  • writing
  • art
  • Cities can compete better than villages