AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS. OBJECTIVES. Learn Basic Computer Terminology Difference Between Hardware and Software Understanding Computer Components Basic Keyboard and Mouse Usage Proper Care For your PC. PREREQUISITES. There are no prerequisites. DEFINITION. What is a Computer?
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OBJECTIVES • Learn Basic Computer Terminology • Difference Between Hardware and Software • Understanding Computer Components • Basic Keyboard and Mouse Usage • Proper Care For your PC
PREREQUISITES • There are no prerequisites.
DEFINITION • What is a Computer? • com·put·er Pronunciation key (km-pytr)n. • A device that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information. • One who computes. • (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed. Pub. 2000)
THE LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS Binary Numbers
Binary Numbers 1 of 3 Computers speak binary. Binary language consists of combinations of 1's and 0's that represent characters of other languages (in our case the English language). Don’t make the mistake of thinking that little 1's and 0's are running around inside of the computer. We humans prefer to think of 1's and 0's because it’s easier than visualizing positive and negative current flows or open and closed circuits which is what actually happens inside computers. A combination of eight bits represents one character in our language. One character in our language (eight bits) is referred to as a byte. (For example: 01000001 is a byte that represents an uppercase A; each 1 or 0 is a bit.)
Binary Numbers 2 of 3 • Kilobytes, Megabytes, and Gigabytes • If you understand that a byte is one character in our language, you’ve got it made because: • 1000 bytes = 1 kilobyte • (1,000 characters = 1 kilobyte) • 1,000,000 bytes = 1 megabyte • (1,000,000 characters = 1 megabyte) • 1,000,000,000 bytes = 1 gigabyte (1,000,000,000 characters = 1 gigabyte)
Binary Numbers 3 of 3 • Disk Capacity • It’s important to know how large your files are because eventually you won’t have enough space on your disk to hold more files. Knowing the total capacity of your disk, how much space is left on your disk, and how large the file is, you can make accurate decisions as to whether to save the file to the current disk, or save the file to a different diskette with more disk capacity. • Keep in mind that a low density floppy diskette holds 720 kilobytes of data, and a high density floppy diskette holds 1.44 megabytes of data. Put in easier to understand terms, a low density disk can hold approximately 300 typed pages and a high density can hold approximately 600 typed pages. Zip disks have 100 megabytes of disk capacity (about $10.00 each) or 250 megabytes of disk capacity (about $15.00 each). CD-ROMS have 650 megabytes of capacity (about $1.00 each) or 700 megabytes of capacity (about $1.50 each). Super Disks have 120 megabytes of disk capacity (about $12.00 each). Hard drives (disk drives inside of the computer) might hold anywhere from 30 megabytes (old computers) to 80 gigabytes (new computers) of data. Most computers today are sold with anywhere from a 5 gigabyte (portable/laptop computers) to a 120 gigabyte (desktop computers) disk capacity.
DIFFERENT TYPES of COMPUTERS Desk top • computer computer Lap Top Hand Held computer Computer THIS IS A FEW OF THE
DEFINITION • Hardware Vs. Software If you can touch it, it’s hardware
Uses for a PC • Word Processing • Desktop Publishing • Database Management • Spreadsheets • Communication • Finance • Education • Entertainment • News and Information • Doorstop
Tips for Beginners • Explore Your Computer • Mistakes won’t Kill You • EDIT/ UNDO is your Friend • Be persistent • Apply what you Learn • Don’t try to learn too fast • Walk away if you get frustrated • Have Fun
Why Learn This Stuff? • Buying a PC • Having Your PC Serviced • Calling For Support • Be able to talk to Friends & Grandchildren • It’s Fun
Hardware Overview PC Versus MAC
SYSTEM COMPONENTSCPU/PROCESSOR • The CPU refers to the microprocessor chip. Sometimes the “Tower” is called the CPU. • It’s speed is measured in Megahertz (MHZ) (Millions of cycles per second) or Gigahertz (GHZ) Billions of cycles per second. • (A cycle is the time required for the CPU to execute an instruction step).
SYSTEM COMPONENTSRam – Random Access Memory • Ram is the memory used by the computer to run programs. • The amount of Ram available will determine how fast a program will run and how many windows can be open at one time. • Ram memory is considered Volatile because it disappears when the power is turned off.
SYSTEM COMPONENTSHard Drive • The Hard Drive is the computers main, long term storage. • It is referred to as non-volatile storage, because it does not disappear when the power is turned off. • The size of the Hard Drive is measured in Gigabytes. (Billions of Bytes).
RAM VERSUS HARD DRIVE • If we use the analogy of a desk: Then the work we are doing on the desk top would be using the RAM and the work we store in the file drawers would be on the HARD DRIVE.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Mother Board • (This is where most of the electronics is located).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Case • (Tower,Chassis,Box)
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Modem (Modulator Demodulator). • (Used for internet access with phone line).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Power Supply • 250 – 500 Watts • DO NOT OPEN • (This is the power source that makes everything go).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Audio Card • This is the voice of your system).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Floppy Drive – • 1.44 MB • (This item is fast becoming obsolete).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Network Card • (Used to connect to high speed internet access e.g. Cable or DSL lines).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Tape Drive Can store Gigabytes of data.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS • Video Card • (Provides visual images to the monitor. Also used in computer games, to provide additional memory for visual effects).
PERIPHERALS • Monitors • CRT Vs LCD
PERIPHERALS • Printers • (Might be Ink Jet, Bubble Jet, Laser or whatever the manufacturers invent tomorrow).
PERIPHERALS • Video Cameras • (Also called webcams)
POWER PROTECTION • Uninterruptible Power Supply • (UPS) 280 VA – 400 VA • (Essentially a battery back-up in case of a power failure)
KEYBOARD • The Keyboard • (This is the primary input device)
KEYBOARD • Alphanumeric Keys
KEYBOARD • Numeric Keypad
KEYBOARD • Enter (Return) Key
KEYBOARD • Spacebar
KEYBOARD • “Modifier” keys: CTRL, ALT, SHIFT
KEYBOARD • “State “ keys: Caps, Scroll, Numlock
KEYBOARD • Windows keys
MOUSE • Holding the mouse • Grip between thumb and ring finger • (Right handed grip shown, Lefties use other hand)
MOUSE • Mouse Pointer
MOUSE • Left Clicking
MOUSE • Right clicking
MOUSE • Double clicking • (Use the left side, • Click twice)
MOUSE • Click and drag