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1. Livestock Carrying Capacity
2. Livestock numbers in GBAO (Livestock Units)
3. Breakdown of total livestock units by livestock species (using 1 head cattle = 5 head sheep)
4. Sources of livestock feed Pasture (summer, winter, autumn/spring)
Straw from cereal crops
Feed crops grown in the Pamir
Concentrate imported into the region
Each species of livestock uses these sources in very different proportions
5. Availability and use of arable land in GBAO
6. Sown winter feed production in GBAO now at 35% of 1991 levels in feed units.
Feed crops are now dominated by perennial crops such as lucerne and sainfoin
Concentrate imports collapsed but figures not available by region. In Tajikistan as a whole they dropped by 98%. Winter feed deficit
7. Pasture availability There are no accurate figures available of pasture availability. Recent remote sensing studies suggest about 1.5 million hectares.
750,000 hectares are officially classified as usable pasture. The rest is inaccessible or lacks water supply.
This total available area has decreased as pastures outside GBAO are no longer used.
Some migrations between districts have also ceased.
8. Calculation of pasture carrying capacity
9. Winter Pastures in GBAO
10. Pasture feed production and animal requirements, Tajikistan
11. Actual and optimal stocking rates on seasonal pasturein GBAO (estimates from G. Safaraliev, Livestock Research Institute)
13. Conclusions so far….. Winter fodder and lack of spring/autumn/winter pastures are the factors limiting livestock numbers and productivity.
There is a surplus of summer pasture, but livestock do not always use these pastures due to lack of mobility.
14. Livestock mobility Pasture resources are highly variable in time and space.
Livestock mobility is key to pasture management as it allows stocking rates to track this variability, matching demand with supply.
Livestock mobility thus helps to both improve animal condition and avoid degradation.
15. Barriers to use of remote pastures High transport costs
Lack of facilities in pasture (accommodation; barns)
Lack of water
Pasture tax and land tenure issues……..
16. Organisation of herding Average livestock ownership by household is 9 head of small stock and 2 head large stock
Therefore herding is managed collectively
This fact is key to understanding pasture management and access in Tajikistan
17. Legal forms of pasture access Permanent use
Long term use
State fund land
State forest land
18. Pasture privatisation in GBAO Most households members of ‘collective dekhan farms’
These farms are being disbanded – members receive certificates for arable land and a share of permanent use pasture.
Individuals may also apply for extra pasture from other tenure categories, sometimes privatising large areas of formerly communal land.
19. Experience from other countries in the region has shown that pasture privatisation is likely to lead to: Fragmentation of pasture into parcels
Annexation of pasture by larger herders at the expense of collective herds
Creation of barriers to remote pastures through loss of rights of passage and fencing.
The future of pasture management in GBAO will depend on how the privatisation process plays out on the ground.