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Content of Lecture 14.1 Costs of solid waste collection, sorting and processing 14.2 Benefits of managing solid waste 14.3 User fees and fee collection 14.4 Benefits of waste reduction and recycling 14.5 Job opportunities in SWM. 14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing.

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Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

Content of Lecture

14.1 Costs of solid waste collection, sorting and processing

14.2 Benefits of managing solid waste

14.3 User fees and fee collection

14.4 Benefits of waste reduction and recycling

14.5 Job opportunities in SWM


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

Background

  • Rising population and MSW:

  • the globally generated MSW

  • In 1990, - 1.3 billion metric tons

  • Presently- 1.6 billion metric tons

  • Money for managing the MSW:

  • In the Early 1990s - Asian countries spent about US$25 billion/yr

  • By the 2025- - this will rise to around US$50 billion/yr.

  • Hence, SWM has become a large, complex & costly service


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

  • MSW management consumes a high percentage of the municipal budgets, for example:

    • In Malaysia, an average of 50% of the municipal budget is spent on

    • MSW, and of this, 70% is spent on collection.

  • To develop an integrated and cost-effective MSW management system, individual components of the system should be:

    • chosen so they do not overlap or compete excessively

    • sized to handle the portion of the waste optimally

    • located so that transportation costs are minimum

    • owned, operated, and financed to minimize overall public costs

    • administered by appropriate agencies, with adequate public oversight


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

  • Case Study : costs of MSW management in an Egyptian settlement Rosetta region, Nile Delta (1/3)

    • Total 17 human settlements (one urban and rest are rural)

    • total population of the region: 191,686 (2005).

    • average household size: 4.5 to 7.4

  • Municipal authorities have the responsibility for providing SWM service

    • one truck and few personnel collects the waste infrequently

    • solid waste generated, 32.54 tons/day, either infrequently collected or just dumped illegally


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

  • Case Study : costs of MSW management in an Egyptian settlement Rosetta region, Nile Delta (2/3)

  • Fleet needed to handle the generated SMW:

    • 5-ton trucks working on the main streets : 20 tons/day

    • 1.1-ton trucks covering more remote and narrow internal streets (with transferring loads to larger trucks): 26.4 tons/day

    • Landfill: 1.62 ha plot has the capacity to accept 4.77 yr of MSW in the area.


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

  • Case Study :costs of MSW management in an Egyptian settlement Rosetta region, Nile Delta (3/3)

  • Annual costs of this SWM system (including depreciation, sanitary landfill preparation and rehabilitation, and operational costs) was estimated as $300,000

    • Costs could be totally covered by the locally raised funds.

    • The willingness to pay was estimated as- $550,000.

    • Profitability of the service: rate of return on investment vary 59.6% to 57.4%.

    • MSW service could be financed locally and could represent a profitable business.

    • could be provided either by a small-scale firm, a local cooperative or an NGO


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.1 Costs of waste collection, sorting & processing

  • Example:Latin American model for integration of small-scale waste collection enterprises with the formal waste collection

  • Enterprises

    • paid by the municipal authorities or by a community

    • provide collection using man powered or semi-motorized carts

    • serve hilly areas marginally or not served et al where collection

    • trucks cannot reach.

    • low cost of equipment and administrative costs are minimal,

    • operation and maintenance of the equipment is simple and

    • inexpensive


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.2 Benefits of managing solid waste

  • Benefits of managing solid waste are:

  • Achievement of local, regional, and state solid waste

    reduction/diversion goals.

  • Savings on landfill space.

  • Savings on energy.

  • Reduction of water pollution risks.

  • Conservation of natural resources.

  • Reduction of landfill disposal costs.

  • Production of reusable products.

  • Revenue from sale of reusable materials.


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.3 User fees and fee collection

  • Financial Sources

  • - municipal taxes

  • - fees charged for services

  • - government subsidies

  • - deposit-refund system for recyclables

  • (Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, and Jakarta)

  • several forms of levy

    • direct fees based on waste volumes

    • indirect fees

    • (based on property taxes, floor area, water and electric bill)


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.4 Benefits of waste reduction & recycling

  • Benefits of waste reduction & recycling

    • Space saving

    • Sustainable use of natural resources

    • Resource recovery

    • Environmental savings

    • Financial benefits

    • Health benefits

    • Social uplift


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.4 Benefits of waste reduction & recycling

  • Extracting and adding value processes

    • Collection

    • Sorting

    • Accumulation of volume

    • Pre-processing

    • Small manufacturing craftsmanship

    • Market intelligence

    • Trading


Content of lecture 14 1 costs of solid waste collection sorting and processing

14.5 Job opportunities in SWM

  • Job opportunities in SWM can be found at different levels

  • For example at Micro-enterprises

    • Micro-enterprises are for profit business operations.

    • Run by entrepreneurs (focus is on creativity, innovation and the constant search for new products or process ideas)

    • Micro-enterprises enter into SWM activities because they see a gap in service delivery and existence of a demand for fulfilling that gap.

    • The extent of private sector depends on a number factors including demand for the service, ability to pay, poverty and regulations.