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WORKING KNOWLEDGE Chapters 5-9 Presentation. Casey Tealdi January 31, 2007 MIS 580. Chapter 5: Knowledge Transfer. Most effective way : hire smart people, let them talk to one another Reality : people settle for “good” information from someone nearby

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Working knowledge chapters 5 9 presentation

WORKING KNOWLEDGEChapters 5-9 Presentation

Casey Tealdi

January 31, 2007

MIS 580

Chapter 5 knowledge transfer
Chapter 5: Knowledge Transfer

  • Most effective way: hire smart people, let them talk to one another

  • Reality: people settle for “good” information from someone nearby

  • The larger the company, the harder it is to track down. But, the more likely it exists!

How management can promote knowledge transfer
How Management Can Promote Knowledge Transfer

  • Training

    • “A typical program includes how to identify problems, prioritize, analyze root causes, identify possible counter-measures, implement the solution, and check whether the solution actually works.”

  • Incentives

    • “Pay for ideas generated by groups or individuals; job duties that include tinkering; permitting or encouraging experiments that are well-conceived but fail; and giving credit to employees who generate new ideas.”

How management can promote knowledge transfer1
How Management Can Promote Knowledge Transfer

  • Organizational structures

    • “Formal employee involvement structures such as brainstorming, suggestion programs, quality circles, and self-directing teams support both creating and sharing knowledge.”

  • Technology

    • “Groupware promotes sharing by tracking the status of ideas and communicating them across a group. Technology helps the quick evaluation of new ideas by capturing actions and transactions and computing their effectiveness.”

Strategies for knowledge transfer
Strategies for Knowledge Transfer

  • Unstructured knowledge transfer is critical

    • Virtual offices, mobility hurt this transfer type

  • Assignees and face-to-face meetings are most effective

  • Must suit organizational/national culture

  • Explicit knowledge: procedures, docs

  • Tacit knowledge: personal contact, formal mentoring

How to do it successfully
How To Do It Successfully

  • Send clear message to employees, encourage reading and talking

  • Knowledge maps

  • The more rich and tacit the knowledge, the more technology should be used

  • Values, norms, and behaviors that make up company culture determine success

The culture of knowledge transfer
The Culture of Knowledge Transfer

  • Shared language is essential

    • Physicians or engineers

  • Acceptance depends on transfer medium

  • Two actions: transmission and absorption

  • Viscosity refers to richness of knowledge

    • At odds with velocity (speed of transfer)

  • Example of success: Post-it Notes at 3M

Chapter 6 knowledge roles and skills
Chapter 6:Knowledge Roles and Skills

  • Must set roles and skills to capture, distribute, and use knowledge

  • Must be part of everyone’s job

  • Good knowledge workers have

    • Hard skills (structured knowledge, technology)

    • Soft skills (culture, political, personal aspects)

  • Corporate librarians are very valuable

Managers of knowledge projects
Managers of Knowledge Projects

  • Serve in middle level of KM infrastructure

  • Must have “hard” and “soft” skills

  • Must be “egoless”

  • Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)

    • Management of knowledge

    • Facilitation of organizational learning

  • Comment: Being “egoless” in the workplace might be harder than you think.

The chief knowledge officer

CKO must:

Manage relationships with external knowledge providers

Provide critical input to the process of knowledge creation

Measure and manage the value of the firm’s knowledge assets

CKO responsibilities:

Build a knowledge culture

Create a KM infrastructure

Make it pay off economically

The Chief Knowledge Officer

Fostering knowledge culture
Fostering Knowledge Culture

  • Education

  • Incentive programs

  • Management example

  • To defend value of KM

    • Financial figures

    • Success stories

Cko or no cko


Knowledge is embedded in products

Knowledge is critical to the services offered to customers


Decentralized organizational structure

Functions might be performed by other managers

CKO or No CKO?

Four levels of km roles
Four Levels of KM Roles

  • Line workers

  • Knowledge workers

  • Knowledge project managers

  • Senior knowledge executives

  • KM roles and responsibilities must be real jobs requiring dedicated resources

Chapter 7 technologies for km
Chapter 7: Technologies for KM

  • Most valuable role: extending the reach and enhancing the speed of transfer

  • Also helps in: codification and generation

Technologies that support or enhance knowledge transfer
Technologies that Support or Enhance Knowledge Transfer

  • Tacit to Tacit

    • E-meetings

    • Synchronous collaboration (chat)

  • Tacit to Explicit

    • Answering Questions

    • Annotation

Technologies that support or enhance knowledge transfer1
Technologies that Support or Enhance Knowledge Transfer

  • Explicit to Tacit

    • Visualization

    • Browsable video/audio of presentations

  • Explicit to Explicit

    • Text search

    • Document categorization

Expert systems and artificial intelligence
Expert Systems andArtificial Intelligence

  • Case-based reasoning (CBR) involves extraction of knowledge from a series of narratives or cases

  • CBR has…

    • Not achieved broad business application

  • CBR is…

    • Most commonly found in customer service and support process areas

Knowledge repositories
Knowledge Repositories

  • Examples: Lotus Notes, the Web, Hoover, GrapeVINE

  • Product, market, customer knowledge

  • Good thesaurus is essential

  • Underlying technique: text search-and-retrieval

Focused knowledge environments
Focused Knowledge Environments

  • Expert systems: enable the knowledge of a few experts to reach broad audience

  • Constraint-based systems: capture and model constrains that govern decisions

  • Real-time knowledge systems: best for users who are only somewhat expert

Long term analysis systems
Long-term Analysis Systems

  • Neural network is a statistically-oriented tool that classifies cases into categories

  • Requirements

    • Lots of quantitative data

    • High-powered computer

    • Very knowledgeable user

  • Still need a human to: structure and interpret the data, make a decision

What technologies can t do
What Technologies Can’t Do

  • Knowledge creation; still the act of individuals…and their brains.

  • Value added by people

    • Context

    • Experience

    • Interpretation

  • Transform information into knowledge

Chapter 8 km projects in practice

Organizational objectives

Structuring people

Structuring technology

Structuring knowledge content

KM objectives

Create knowledge repositories

Improve knowledge access

Improve knowledge cultures/environments

Chapter 8: KM Projects in Practice

Knowledge repositories1
Knowledge Repositories

  • Types

    • External knowledge

    • Structured internal knowledge

    • Informal internal knowledge

  • What goes into them: memos, presentations, reports, articles

  • Comment: Client contact info, dates and results of past interactions, purchase histories, etc. all go into corporate knowledge repositories.

Knowledge environment projects
Knowledge Environment Projects

  • Improve the value of knowledge capital

  • Build awareness and cultural receptivity

  • Attempt to change behavior

  • Attempt to improve the process

  • Some firms include contribution to the knowledge base in compensation decision

Attributes of successful km
Attributes of Successful KM

  • Growth in the resources attached

  • Growth in knowledge volume

  • High likelihood of sustainability

  • Comfort throughout the organization

  • Evidence of financial return

What do people extract from a knowledge center
What Do People Extract From AKnowledge Center?

  • Previous presentations to clients

  • Process and system design specifications

  • Work plans

  • Other project-oriented collateral/artifacts

Factors leading to km success
Factors Leading to KM Success

  • Knowledge-oriented culture

  • Technical and organizational infrastructure

  • Senior management support

  • Clarity of vision and language

  • Multiple channels for knowledge transfer

What are companies spending on km of revenue
What are companies spending on KM (% of revenue)?

  • Buckman Laboratories: 2.5

  • Ernst & Young: 6

  • McKinsey & Co.: 10

  • Three most important factors

    • Knowledge-oriented culture

    • Human infrastructure

    • Senior management support

Chapter 9 the pragmatics of knowledge management
Chapter 9: The Pragmatics of Knowledge Management

  • Must be blended with other activities or success is unlikely

  • The more people and more groups that buy into the effort, the more likely success

The path to successful km
The Path to Successful KM

  • Step #1

    • Capture solutions within natural problem resolution workflow.

  • Step #2

    • Streamline and simplify the content review process.

  • Step #3

    • Use consistent standards and templates to improve quality.

  • Step #4

    • Get top-to-bottom buy-in for your KM solution.

  • Step #5

    • Reward and recognize people for sharing knowledge.

Getting started in km
Getting Started in KM

  • Start with a recognized business problem

    • Customer defections

    • Poorly designed systems

    • Losses of key personnel

    • Lower “win rate” for service engagements

  • Remember: multi-faceted programs will take longer to see change than single

Additional tips
Additional Tips

  • Leverage existing approaches

  • If you start with technology, the other necessary factors may not materialize

  • Do not underestimate the difficulty of importing best practices

  • Without structure, organizational learning is too conceptual and abstract

Knowledge management pitfalls
Knowledge Management Pitfalls

  • Excessive focus on technology

  • Putting boring content online

  • Failing to measure the worth of knowledge managers

  • Making access restricted or hard to get

  • The belief that an organization is non-hierarchical

The last word
The Last Word

“Knowledge and learning must always serve the broader aims of the organization. A healthy tension between knowledge and action is the key to organizational (and probably individual) success.”

Research references
Research References

  • COHRE Institute of Industrial Relations. “Managerial Practices Underlying One Piece of the Learning Organization.” 2/16/99.

  • IBM Systems Journal. “Knowledge Management Technology.” 6/15/01.

  • Customer Inter@ction Solutions. “Five Steps To Successful Knowledge Management In Your Service Center.” 8/2004.

Working knowledge chapters 5 9 presentation1

WORKING KNOWLEDGEChapters 5-9 Presentation

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