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An "Eiffel" of Architecture
Architecture since the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution, widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century and is still continuing in some parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution was the result of many fundamental, interrelated changes that transformed agricultural economies into industrial ones. The most immediate changes were in the nature of production: what was produced, as well as where and how. Goods that had traditionally been made in the home or in small workshops began to be manufactured in the factory. Productivity and technical efficiency grew dramatically, in part through the systematic application of scientific and practical knowledge to the manufacturing process. Efficiency was also enhanced when large groups of business enterprises were located within a limited area. The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of cities as people moved from rural areas into urban communities in search of work.
1. How do you think the Industrial Revolution changed the way Architecture looked? (form) 2. How do you think the purposes for Architecture changed? (function)
The Eiffel Tower Paris, France • Eiffel Tower, wrought-iron tower in Paris, a landmark and an early example of wrought-iron construction on a gigantic scale. It was designed and built by the French civil engineer Gustave Alexandre Eiffel for the Paris World's Fair of 1889.
His famous axiom, "Form follows function," became the touchstone for many in his profession. The Wainwright Building • Sullivan, Louis Henri (1856-1924), American architect, whose brilliant early designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led to the emergence of the skyscraper as the distinctive American building type. Through his own work, especially his commercial structures, and as the founder of what is now known as the Chicago School of architects, he exerted an enormous influence on 20th-century American architecture. His most famous pupil was the architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who acknowledged Sullivan as his master. The Wainwright Building stands 10 stories high, has a metal frame and was completed in 1891 in St. Louis, Missouri.
The Bauhaus School Dessau, Germany • The ideas of the German Bauhaus school of architecture and applied arts have greatly influenced the development of architecture and design in the 20th century. Founder Walter Gropius designed the unadorned, functional buildings for its quarters in Dessau in 1925. • The Bauhaus was a school of design founded in Germany by architect Walter Gropius in 1919. Many outstanding artists and architects served on its faculty. In 1933 the school was shut down by Germany's Nazi government, and many of its faculty members, including Gropius, immigrated to the United States.
The Chrysler Building New York City • The Chrysler Building (1930) in New York City is considered the quintessential example of art deco architecture. It was designed by William Van Alen, who was inspired in part by cubist art and machine forms. The building, which rises in a series of narrowing arches to the stainless steel spire on top, is 255 m (850 ft) tall. It was the tallest building in the world for one year, before the Empire State Building surpassed it.
The Empire State Building New York City • Built in 1931, the Empire State Building in New York City, New York, stands 381 m (1250 ft) high. The construction of the world’s tallest skyscraper was planned by American politician Alfred Smith. Although no longer the world’s tallest building, it remains a popular tourist destination.
Villa savoye Le corbusier 1929-1930 One of the most famous houses of the modern movement in architecture, the Villa Savoye is a masterpiece of LeCorbusier's purist design. It is perhaps the best example of LeCorbusier's goal to create a house which would be a "machine a habiter," a machine for living (in). Located in a suburb near Paris, the house is as beautiful and functional as a machine.
Fallingwater Frank lloyd wright • Located in Bear Run, Pennsylvania, the house known as Fallingwater was designed by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1937 for the Kaufmann family. This picture shows the section of the house that extends over a natural waterfall, an example of Wright’s belief that a building’s form should be determined by its environment.
Notre dame du haut Ronchamp, France Le Corbusier, 1956
The Guggenheim museum New York city Frank Lloyd Wright 1959 Here, Wright took abstract form and modern technology to their contemporary limits, using reinforced concrete to create a soaring spiral that swelled as it rose, creating a building that was as much sculpture as it was architecture.
The Seagram Building • German American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was one of the leading architects of the 20th century. His sleek, unornamented glass-and-steel skyscrapers were especially influential. The 37-story bronze-and-glass Seagram Building (1958) in New York City, shown here, displays the simplicity and elegance that are characteristic of his style. The building was designed in collaboration with architect Philip Johnson. New York City
The at&t building Philip Johnson • American architect Philip Johnson strongly influenced the rise of the postmodern style of architecture. His design for the AT&T Building(now the Sony Building), constructed in New York City in 1984, had a particularly strong impact. The building’s architectural devices, such as the use of allusion in its Renaissance detail and Chippendale-style pediment, make it a symbol of postmodern architecture.
The twentieth century urban landscape Shaped by architecture Tokyo Chicago
An “Eiffel” of Architecture Core Knowledge 8th Grade Many photos and text from Encarta 99 Produced by Julie Sanford Eagle Crest Academy Holland, MI firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com