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Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas 1851-1860. Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was it the destiny of Texas to become a slave state? Could Texas have avoided joining the Confederacy?. Changes in Texas.

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chapter 13 life in the state of texas 1851 1860

Chapter 13Life in the State of Texas1851-1860

Essential Questions

Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived?

Was it the destiny of Texas to become a slave state?

Could Texas have avoided joining the Confederacy?

changes in texas
Changes in Texas
  • Many people in Texas had come in from other states
    • familiar with customs, money system, and languages
  • But, Texas was still a Frontier State…challenging and exciting
  • Frontier Line in Texas stretched from Red River to Rio Grande…known today as Interstate 35
  • But, Texas was experiencing rapid growth
  • Read “In this Land of Ours” box p. 286
rural life in texas
Rural Life in Texas
  • Between 1846-1860, most Texans lived on farms and ranches
  • Number of farms grew from 12,000 to 43,000
  • Most people had their own farm or ranches
  • Most focused on growing food crops
  • Corn: largest food crop
  • Other crops: wheat, oats, sweet potatoes
  • People didn’t make much money from food

cropshttp://soilcrop.tamu.edu/photogallery/cornsorghum+/pages/corn%20ears.htm

rural life in texas cont
Rural Life in Texas, cont
  • Cotton: main Cash Crop (crop produced for profit)
  • Cotton was grown in Texas and shipped to northern states and Europe…made into cloth
  • Other cash crop: sugar cane
  • Raising livestock on (milk cows, hogs, chickens) was profitable
  • Ranches started—raised cattle and sheep—profitable

http://seedrack.com/indiv/cotton.html

http://www.alternative-energy-fuels.com/biofuels/liquid-biofuel/sugarcane-research-aims-to-harvest-green-energ

the growth of towns
The Growth of Towns
  • In 1850, fewer than 13,000 people lived in towns. But by 1860, more than 26,000 lived in towns
    • Towns had home, general stores, blacksmith shops, lawyer/doctor/trade shops
    • Sheriffs, town marshals provided law enforcement
    • Most buildings made of wood—logs or lumber
    • No paved streets
    • Picture on page 284 depicts life
  • Galveston: largest town in Texas at beginning of Texas statehood (1850)
    • Most developed port and trade center
  • San Antonio became largest town by 1860
    • Many German immigrants moved to San Antonio
    • Menger Hotel (built of stone in 1859 and tallest building in state except for Capitol in Austin)
  • Houston became 3rd largest town due to railroads
  • Other important towns
    • New Braunfels—many German immigrants
    • Marshall—center for trade
    • Austin—state’s political center and capitol
the growth of towns cont
The Growth of Towns, cont
  • Texas had 2 manufacturing facilities
    • In Houston: made hats
    • In Henderson: Textile Factory—made cloth
  • Other info
    • East Texas towns had saw mills
    • Most towns had grist mills—corn, grains ground into meal for baking
    • Areas where cotton was grown had cotton gins—separate hulls from seeds
    • Areas that grew sugar cane had mills for grinding sugar
transportation
Transportation
  • 1850s, most rode horseback or in wagons pulled by horses, mules, or oxen (picture page 284)
  • On Rio Grande, shipping down river was possible
    • Richard King and Mifflin Kenedy established shipping on steamships during Mexico War
    • They established King Ranch in South Texas
  • East Texas—rivers were better and small boats could travel 100 miles upriver if water was high enough
transportation con t
Transportation, con’t
  • Many Towns served by stagecoaches
    • Could travel 5-8 miles/hour
    • Carried passengers, freight, mail
    • Famous Stagecoach: Butterfield Line—went from Mississippi to Pacific Ocean…crossed North Texas
    • Took about 30 days to go from San Antonio to San Diego, CA…cost $200 for one-way ticket

http://www.wellsfargohistory.com/stagecoach/stagecoach_flash_alt.jpg

transportation cont
Transportation, cont
  • Railroads
    • started building them in 1850s
    • By 1860, 400 miles of railroads had been built
    • Laid out in spider-web fashion around Galveston and Houston
    • Mainly transported products to ports and to market
education
Education
  • Read Then and Now on page 288
  • President Lamar had set aside public land for education when he was President of the Republic of Texas
  • No public education yet—most kids went to private schools set up by churches in one room school houses
  • In 1854, TX Governor Elisha M. Pease set aside 2 million dollars for a school fund
    • A few public schools were started
    • A few colleges were started then
education con t
Education, con’t
  • Permanent School Fund: created in 1876 to make sure that schools would always have money
    • Today that fund is worth about $20 billion +
    • Today schools use interest from that money to help them
    • Elisha M. Pease
      • Known as one of TX most successful governors
        • Supported Permanent School Fund—still used today
        • Cleared state’s debt
        • Set aside money for hospitals for people with mental illnesses
        • Set aside money for schools for people who were deaf
social and cultural life
Social and Cultural Life
  • People liked to
    • Race horses, hunt, fish
    • Dance—Saturday night hoedowns
    • Fiesta Activities—Hispanic culture
    • Religious Celebrations—weddings, baptisms, revivals
    • Political Election rallies
    • Theater Groups
    • Newspapers
interesting info
Interesting Info
  • Camels (page 287)
    • In 1856, 32 camels plus one baby camel born at sea came from Africa to Texas as a US Army experiment
    • These 33 camels plus 41 others that came later were taken to Camp Verde (TX hill country)
    • Very helpful in carrying supplies across dry southwest area
    • Some even used during Civil War
    • But the camels were stinky and had bad tempers and were too hard for army to control, so they sold them after the Civil War
slide14

Camels in Texas

http://www.transchool.lee.army.mil/museum/transportation%20museum/images/camels_painting.gif

Cotton Gin

http://0.tqn.com/d/americanhistory/1/0/u/A/cotton_gin.jpg

slide15

Grist Mill

http://www.rlrouse.com/pic-of-the-day/glade-creek-grist-mill.jpg

slide16

The Menger Hotel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Menger_Hotel_San_Antonio_Texas_photo_of_histrical_photo.jpg

http://images.travelnow.com/hotels/1000000/10000/5900/5877/5877_27_b.jpg

http://www.mengerhotel.com/historic-san-antonio-hotel/

http://gorvtexas.com/menger.htm

slide17

Elisha Pease

http://www.tspb.state.tx.us/spb/gallery/govs/images/1989_36_Pease_LG.jpg

http://www.transchool.lee.army.mil/museum/transportation%20museum/images/camels_painting.gif

a changing population
A Changing Population
  • Many settlers coming into Texas
    • Population in 1850: 212,000
    • Population in 1860: 604,000
    • Many Native Texans forced out when Anglo Americans moved in
    • Why did they come?
      • Land
      • Sense of adventure
      • Political freedom
      • Problems in homeland
migration from the us
Migration from the US
  • Most new Texans came from southern states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, & Alabama)
  • Most settlers went to areas in Texas that were like their former home
    • have similar lifestyles
mexican texans
Mexican Texans
  • 1850: estimated to be 23,000 Mexican Texans
    • Most lived in San Antonio area between Nueces River

and Rio Grande

    • Or they lived along Rio Grande from Big Bend to El Paso
    • Many had successful cattle or sheep ranches
      • Other Mexican Texans worked on these ranches
      • Jose Antonio Navarro had successful ranch
    • Some Tejanos concerned that Anglo American settlers were becoming more influential than Tejanos who had been there longer
      • Juan Cortina…was concerned

http://www.fold3.com/page/1178_the_mexican_texans/

juan cortina
Juan Cortina
  • Operated ranch near Brownsville
  • Believe Tejanos were not being treated fairly because their land was being taken away from them
  • Cortina fought against corrupt officials who helped take land away from Tejanos by carrying out acts of violence
    • Became known as Cortina War
    • See Picture/caption on page 291
cortina war

Juan Cortina

Cortina War
  • Cortina had about 400 supporters
  • Cortina was defeated by a Confederate

captain: Santos Benavides

  • Result of Cortina War: left Mexican and Anglo Texans suspicious of each other
  • Regardless, Mexican Americans continued to have strong influence on economy, art, culture, and language of Texas

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Juan_Nepomuceno_Cortina.jpg

german texans
German Texans
  • By 1860, more than 43,000 people born outside of US lived in Texas
  • Germans made up largest number of immigrants
  • Germans came for
    • political/religious freedom
    • economic opportunities
  • Many Germans came to Texas as part of organized effort of Adelsverein—Society for Protection of German Immigrants in Texas
german texans cont
German Texans, cont
  • John O. Meusebach: leader for German settlers
  • Brought German settlers to New Braunfels
  • Helped settle Fredericksburg
slide26

http://www.texasescapes.com/WTBlock/TexasGermanSettlerFirstGenElkinsBrossmJPenney.jpghttp://www.texasescapes.com/WTBlock/TexasGermanSettlerFirstGenElkinsBrossmJPenney.jpg

http://astuteblogger.blogspot.com/2012/02/overheard-at-water-cooler-german-texans.html

German Settlers in Texas

Boerne, TX

1890

http://www.littlecolonel.com/Places/Texas/Boerne/pics/Boerne1890-0.jpg

other european immigrants
Other European Immigrants
  • Irish: 2nd largest group of settlers in Texas
  • English: 3rd largest group
  • Irish:
    • left Ireland mainly because of disease that attacked potatoes, Ireland’s main food crop. This disease caused a famine
      • famine: severe food shortage
  • Many Irish settled in San Patricio and Refugio
other europeans cont
Other Europeans, cont
  • Settlers also came from France
    • Frenchman named Henri Castro founded colony of Castroville along Medina River
  • Other settlers came from:
    • Poland
      • led by Father Leopold Moczygemba
      • settled in town of PannaMaria
    • Czechoslovakia—
      • settled in Central Texas
      • led by Ernst Bergmann & Josef Lesikar
    • Sweden, Norway, Italy, and the Netherlands
slide29

http://www.bestplaces.net/images/city/castroville_tx.gif

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/badeker-tx-castroville-1849.jpg

Henri Castro

http://www.castroville.com/henri_castro.htm

http://www.castroville.com/

Castroville

http://www.castroville.com/images/henricastro.jpg

native texans
Native Texans
  • Pres Lamar had forced out most Native Texans when Texas was a Republic
    • Kiowas and Comanches still lived in West Texas
  • His policy was called the Removal of Native Texans

Removal: forcing Native Americans to move to

reservations

  • As more settlers came into Texas, they moved into Native American land= increased tensions
  • US Army set up military posts to help keep peace
    • Line of military posts from Ft. Worth to Eagle Pass
reservations
Reservations
  • In 1854, Texas government passed a bill (law) that set land aside for reservations
    • Brazos Reservation (close to Ft. Belknap in Young County)
      • Set up for Tawakonis, Wacos, Tonkawas
    • Clear Fork Reservation (on Brazos River…in Throckmorton County)
  • Most Native Texans refused to stay within boundaries of reservations
  • Boundaries were crossed by settlers
  • Within a few years, most reservations were gone and Native Texans had been forced out of Texas
slide32

Indian Reservations

http://www.texasalmanac.com/topics/history/camp-cooper-ft-belknap-and-indian-reservations

http://www.texashistory.com/Archives/TexasIndianReservations/tabid/152/language/en-US/Default.aspx

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bpb03

https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/exhibits/indian/statehood/page2.html

http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/tejas/fundamentals/images/marcy-map-redrawn-sm.jpg

http://www.texasalmanac.com/sites/default/files/images/campcooper.png

wedges of separation
Wedges of Separation
  • Read “A Real Life Story” p. 295
  • For newly annexed Texas meant that US problems were now Texas problems
  • Slavery was a big problem
  • During 1850s, several issues caused “wedges of separation” that divided the US into North and South and led to the breakup of the Union of the US
    • Slavery
    • States rights
  • By 1861, ¾ of Texans voted to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy.
    • Secede=to withdraw formally

http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/wedge.gif

slavery in texas
Slavery in Texas
  • Slavery had existed in Texas for many years
  • By 1860, the slave population was growing faster than the free population
  • Slaves
    • Had no property rights
    • Had no legal rights of marriage & family
    • Had no way to gain their freedom
    • Slave families could be separated and sold
    • Could not vote
    • Had no freedoms like even the poorest Anglo American citizens had
slide35

Slavery

http://ftsblog.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Screen-shot-2011-03-07-at-11.25.16-AM-1024x576.png

slavery in texas cont
Slavery in Texas, cont
  • As population of Texas grew so did number of slaves
  • Growth of cotton industry meant more slaves were needed to work the fields
    • Many slaves also worked on smaller farms or in trade shops
  • By 1860, about 182,000 slaves lived in Texas (almost 1/3 of state’s population)
  • Even though most white people in Texas didn’t own slaves, they supported the institution of slavery
    • They claimed that slaves were needed to support the economy of the South
    • Economy of South did depend on slaves to help produce cash crops
slavery in texas con t
Slavery in Texas, con’t
  • But, many Texans (including German immigrants and Tejanos) opposed slavery
    • Thought it was morally wrong for one person to own another person
  • In the North, economy based on industry/manufacturing and had not become dependent on slaves

http://www.belch.com/img/carbon-neutral-farming.jpg

free african americans in texas
Free African Americans in Texas
  • Not all African Americans were slaves
  • About 150 free African Americans lived in Texas during time of Mexican rule…they had full legal rights
  • They lost these legal rights when Texas became a state but many of them stayed in Texas anyway
  • By 1860, about 350 free African Americans lived in Texas…probably more
free african americans in texas con t
Free African Americans in Texas, con’t
  • Most free African Americans were poor farmers but some were wealthy business owners
    • William Goyens: owned blacksmith shop in

Nacogdoches

      • When his status as a free man was challenged, Thomas J. Rusk represented him in court
    • Aaron Ashworth: owned farms and ranches in Zavala

County

    • Both of these men owned slaves
slide42

William Goyens

http://www.tbhpp.org/goyens.html

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fgo24

Aaron Ashworth

http://www.tbhpp.org/goyensmarker2.jpg

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fas05

slavery in the new us territories
Slavery in the New US Territories
  • Citizens of US debated over whether slaves should be allowed in new territories
  • Compromise of 1850 decided issue for some territories (like California)
  • But issue of slavery had to be decided for other areas
  • US Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced bill to open settlement in Kansas and Nebraska
    • called the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
kansas nebraska act of 1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  • Had provision in it that allowed citizens in those territories to decide if they would permit slavery or not
  • All US Senators voted on the bill
    • Texas Senator Sam Houston voted against the bill because he thought that the Kansas-Nebraska Act would divide the Union
    • Texas Senator Thomas J. Rusk voted for the bill
  • The bill passed but Texans were angry with Sam Houston because he wanted to keep slavery out of those territories and Texans wanted slavery
    • Sam Houston was not elected to the Senate again as a result of his voting against the Kansas-Nebraska Act
political parties
Political Parties
  • Things went from bad to worse for Sam Houston. He supported the development of a new political party in Texas
  • The Know Nothing Party
      • Opposed immigration to US…especially Roman Catholics with German or Mexican ancestry
    • 2 major political parties in US

Democratic Party: mostly supported farmers and

laborers (Most Texans)

Whig Party: mostly supported business growth

political parties cont
Political Parties, cont
  • When Texas became a state, most Texans were Democrats
  • Some Texans were Whigs but party never had strong influence in state
  • When Sam Houston supported the Know Nothing Party, he did so just to oppose the Democrats in the Texas legislature
    • But, he never officially joined the Know Nothings
houston s race for governor
Houston’s Race for Governor
  • Sam Houston resigned as state senator and returned to Texas to run for governor in 1857
  • He ran as an independent and not as a member of either political party
  • He strongly believed that Southern states should not secede from Union but that Union should remain whole
houston s race for governor con t
Houston’s Race for Governor, con’t
  • Hardin J. Runnelswas nominated by the Democratic Party in Texas to run for governor
    • Originally from Mississippi
    • Owned a plantation near Red River
    • Supported state’s rights—believed that each state had right to make own decision about slavery
    • Favored secession if needed to preserve state’s rights
  • Houston had been gone from Texas for 10 years and had become out of touch with what the citizens of Texas really wanted
  • Sam Houston lost the election but made immediate plans to run again in 1859
    • Runnels became governor in 1857
governor cont
Governor, cont
  • Sam Houston stayed in Texas even after he lost the governor’s election in 1857
  • His presence reminded Texans about who he was and his contribution to Texas’ history
  • Problems on the frontier caused Texans to lose faith in Gov Runnels
  • Gubernatorial Election in 1859: Sam Houston defeated Hardin Runnels
    • As governor, Houston strongly supported the US Union but most Texans strongly supported state’s rights. Under Houston, Texas found it difficult to secede from the Union during secession crisis of 1860-1861 before Civil War began
slide50

http://www.tspb.state.tx.us/spb/gallery/govs/images/1989_37_Runnels_LG.jpghttp://www.tspb.state.tx.us/spb/gallery/govs/images/1989_37_Runnels_LG.jpg

Hardin R. Runnels

http://blog.americanheritage1.com/Portals/48049/images/HOUSTON%20SAM%20PHTO%20COLOR%20SEATED%20Sam_Houston2.750.jpg

Sam Houston