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  1. M5.117 Literature Survey and Risk Analysis of Escape from Underground Spaces Atsuko TANAKA Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Introduction Large underground spaces have been used for centuries and their use is expanding to mines, road tunnels, railway tunnels, and subways. A review of disasters in large underground spaces indicates common trends in the progression of the chain of accidental events and the number of victims, even in different times and places. Such serious results could be prevented if previous disasters and human factors in underground escape are well recognized. Much research and development has gone into evacuation safety in large underground spaces, especially in emergency and safety systems and facilities. Consequences of factors affecting escape in previous cases have not been evaluated sufficiently, resulting in a shortage of common understanding of behavior in discussing desirable safety facilities for large underground spaces, not to mention the estimation of time available for such acts – a factor that in itself creates danger. It is therefore essential to reorganize knowledge and findings from previous disasters cases and transfer these to other technological fields in easily understandable form. In this poster, we analyze 22 of previous cases of escape from large underground spaces and discuss the consequences of factors affecting the result of evacuation. Overview of cases analyzed in literature survey Table 1 Distances to safety exits of in cases analyzed Figure 1 Year and Escape Cases ''79 Ohshimizu tunnel construction site (Earthquakes) '94 Kobe subway '04 Ohshimizu tunnel ''84 Miike coal mine ''72 Hokuriku railway tunnel ''99 Tauern road tunnel ''79 Nihonzaka road tunnel ''99 Mont Blanc road tunnel '03 Korea Daegu '79 San Francisco BART ''01Gotthard road tunnel Figure 2 Relation between distances to safe exit and location of events of analyzed cases Human factors Table 2 Distances and estimated traveling time in the case of slower adult smoke obstacles Figure 4 Experiment of traveling Figure 3 Experiment of way finding http://staff.aist.go.jp/a.tanaka/

  2. Discussion Discussion (continued) Figure 9 decrease escape distances Conclusion Based on a survey of the literatures on 22 underground evacuation cases, we analyzed the influence of hazard factors on escape results. These cases involved road tunnels, railway tunnel, mines, and construction sites ranging from fires, automobile collisions, and power failures due to earthquakes to cases involving terrorist acts. We found that evacuation success or failure depends on the urgency of the event and travel distances required to reach emergency exits or shelters, regardless of the purpose to which underground facilities were put. We also compared urgency and rescuer access time to cases. In power failures in underground spaces, the risk to human life and the need for immediate escape are relatively low – unlike in some fires in which escape routes become untenable far more quickly than it takes for rescue teams to arrive. The results of our survey demonstrated the importance of taking measures and implementing designs for self-escape assistance for evacuees – information availability and adequate signage, for example – especially in underground spaces. Based on an analysis of event urgency and travel time, we concluded that the limit to successful evacuation or escape is within 400 m of emergency exits. Figure 5 Wind speed and smoke flow Figure 6 Wind speed and slower adult's walking Table 3 Distances and possibility of escape Acknowledgement The author is deeply indebted to Prof. Dr. Yoshiteru Murosaki of the National Research Institute of Disaster and to the Kobe University staff, whose help, stimulating suggestions, and encouragement enabled research on this issue. The author thank Dr. Akihiko Hokugo, Prof. Emeritus Dr. Isao Mitani,and Dr. Toshiyuki Matsushita for their invaluable suggestions on research details. The author also thank all whose support and interest enabled this work to be completed, and, last but not least, Dr. Kazuo Aoki for his attentive assistance and colleagues at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology for their help in all stages of research. References Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1972.11.6: evening ed. p.1,3,10 - 1973.1.17: 13rd ed. p.1,3 (Japanese) Hokkaido Assoc. Coalmine Tech & Kyushu Assoc. Coalmine Tech.: Past cases of underground coalmine fires (Japanese), pp.167-171, 1985 Ministry of labor, Labor standard bureau: Official notes on prevention of fires in construction sites of tunnels and other underground spaces (Japanese), No.418-2, 1977.7.25 Washington post: Metro fire posed ad dilemma for rescuers., p.B01, 2000.4.22 - T.Andersen, B.J.Paaske: Safety in railway tunnels and selection of tunnel concept, ESReDA 23rd Seminar, Delft Univ., Netherlands, 2002.11.18-19 Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1979.3.21 13th ed. p.22 - 1979.3.25 13th ed. p.23 (Japanese) - Ministry of labor, Labor standard bureau: Official notes on fire prevention in constructing very long tunnels (Japanese), No. 523-2, 1979.10.22 Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1979.7.12: 13rd ed. p.23 - 1979.7.26: 13rd ed. p.4 (Japanese) - The fire in the Nihonzaka tunnel of Tomei expressway (Japanese), Kasai, Vol. 29, No.5, pp.4-11, 1979 - H.Morimoto: The fire in the Nihonzaka tunnel of Tomei expressway, the judgment of the 1st court and a few problems to mention (Japanese), Kindai Shobo, No.7, pp.32-38, 1990 - The judgment of the fire in the Nihonzaka tunnel of Tomei expressway, the problems around fire fighting (Japanese): Kindai Shobo, No.7, pp.47-50, 1990 - Ministry of construction: Regulations on emergency facilities for road tunnels (Japanese), 1981.4.21 Report of the min fire of Miike underground coalmine, disaster investigation committee (Japanese), 1984 Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1984.11.16: evening 3rd ed. p.19 - 1984.11.21: evening 3rd ed. p.17 (Japanese) Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1987.9.22: 14th ed. p.31, evening 4th ed. p.15 (Japanese) I.Donald, D.Canter: Intentionality and fatality during the King's Cross underground fire, European J. of Social Psychology, Vol.22, No.3, pp.203-218, 1992 - I.Donald, D.Canter: Behavioural aspects of the King's Cross disaster, Fires & human behaviour 2nd ed., ISBN: 1-85346-105-9, pp.15-30, David Fulton Pub., 1990 - A.F.Roberts: The King's Cross Fire: A correlation of eyewitness accounts and results of the scientific investigation, Fire safety J., ISBN: 0379-7112, Vol.18, pp.105-121, 1992 Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1988.7.16: 14th ed p.14, evening 4th ed. p.1, p.11, 1988.7.17: 14th ed. p.31 (Japanese) Asahi Sinbun newspaper: 1995.2.28 Osaka evening ed. p.1 (Japanese) The fire in euro-tunnel on November 18, 1997 (Japanese), Monthly FESC, Vol.193, No.11, pp.36-41, 1997 - K.Higure: Field survey report on The fire in euro-tunnel (Japanese), Monthly FESC, Vol.193, No.11, pp.33-35, 1997 BBC: Austrian tunnel fire traps drivers, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/355821.stm, 1999.5.29, and related articles - A.Leitner : The fire catastrophe in the Tauern Tunnel: experience and conclusions for the Austrian guidelines, - Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Vol.16, No.3, July 2001, pp.217-223, 2001 BBC: Tunnel blaze report highlights failings, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/388904.stm, 1999.7.8 BBC: Austria tunnel fire blamed on heater, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1528917.stm, 2001.9.6, and related articles BBC: Smoke hinders Swiss tunnel rescue, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1617309.stm, 2001.10.25 BBC: Dozens killed in Ukraine mine fire, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2109140.stm, 2002.7.5 - CNN: Neglect 'caused' Ukraine mine fire, http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/07/08/ukraine/, 2002.7.7 Editorial Interview: The disastrous fire in Daegu city subway and required safety measures (Japanese), Kindai Shobo, No.10, pp.30-35, 2003 - T.Matsushita: Study on evacuation in an underground space and smoke control for helping fire fight activities (Japanese), University of Kobe, 2004 - Park Hyun Woo, Jun Gyu Yob & Hong Won Hwa: The analysis of survivors escape route of each train in Daegu city subway fire, kyungpook national university, Department of Architecture, the first investigation report (Korean), 2003 - Japanese.chosun.com: The disaster in the subway: 2003.02.18 18:32, and related articles (Japanese) - Japan.donga.com: The prompt action of the railway official saved citizen’s lives, 2003.2.19 22:37, and related articles (Japanese) niigattanippo.com newspaper: 2003.5.4: A fire break out in Ohmi mine, and related articles (Japanese) K.Igarasi, K.Koizumi: Report on the Niigata Chubu earthquake, 7 hours in tunnel, the interview report of passengers who escaped from Joetsu Shinkansen train (Japanese), Shukan Asahi, pp. 34-35, 2004.11.26 BBC: In depth London attacks, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/uk/2005/london_explosions/default.stm, 2006.7.6 Hokkaido Assoc. Coalmine Tech & Kyushu Assoc. Coalmine Tech.: Past cases of underground coalmine fires (Japanese), pp.249-256, 295-306, 167-171, 1985 J.Hoshi et al.: Site survey on exhaust gas of automobiles in road tunnels - Result of a survey onto a general road way tunnel - (III), Tokyo metro inst. of environmental research(Japanese), pp.12-19, 2002 A.Mizuno, T.Ohkubo, T.Kitani: Control and evaluation method of longitudinal tunnel ventilation control (Japanese), Proc. Japan Assoc. Mech. Eng., Vol.75, pp.187-188, 1998 Roberts, A.F.: The king's cross fire: A correlation of eyewitness and accounts and results of the scientific investigation, Fire Safety Science, Vol.18, No.1, pp.105-121, 1991 City of Kobe, Transit Authority: Report on energy saving plan of railroad facilities (Japanese), Annex, pp. SHI 2 - 7~9, 2003 T.Komai, K.Uchino, T.Isei: Experimental research on temperature distribution of downwind of underground mine gallery (Japanese), Proc. of Spring meeting Japan Mine & Minerals Inst., 1989 T.Komai: Experimental study on spread of underground mine fire and prevention of fire spread (Japanese), Report of Nat. Inst. for Res. & Env. No.1, 1992 S.Yamao: Experimental research on similitude of experiments on underground mine fires (Japanese), Mining and safety, Vol.27, No.4, pp.17-25, 1981 Spalding, D.B.: The art of partial modeling, Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Combustion, pp.833-843, 1963 Japan Assoc. for Fire Sci. & Eng.: Fire Handbook (Japanese), Kyoritsu Shuppan Co., pp.500-502, 1984 M.Inoue, K.Uchino, T.Komai, et al.: Experimental study on temperature of ventilation air and change of air velocity in underground mine fires - change in ventilation air in the case of underground mine fires (Japanese), J. of Japan Mine & Minerals Inst., Vol.106, No.2, pp.65-70, 1990 C.K.Lee, R.F.Chaiken, J.M.Singer: Interaction between duct fire and ventilation flow, Combustion science and technology, Vol.20, pp.59-72, 1979 A.Tanaka, H.Imaizumi, T.Isei: Traveling speed alternation of human in evacuation from underground opening space to surface, Proc. ASIAFLAM '95, pp. 519-524, 1995 Tanaka: Report of interview investigation on decision making in emergency escape, Final report of Japan and USA cooperating research on NY/WTC disaster, Section 4-3, pp.4.3 1-16 A.Tanaka, S.Nakamura, M.Yamaguchi: Experimental survey on recognition of direction in a deeper underground space (Japanese), Proc. symp. on underground space, Japan Soc. of Civil Engineers, vol. 3, pp. 43-52, 1998 A.Tanaka, H.Imaizumi, T.Isei: Way finding in an underground space, Proc. Human behaviour in fire, ISBN: 1 85923 103 9, University of Ulster, vol. 1, pp. 563-572, 1998 Contact Atsuko TANAKA Dr. Eng. 田中 敦子 Senior Researcher, AIST a.tanaka@aist.go.jp http://staff.aist.gp.jp/a.tanaka/ Figure 8 Relation of total escape time and risk factors http://staff.aist.go.jp/a.tanaka/