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Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes

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Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes

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  1. Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes BIOL 1407

  2. Invertebrates • Animals without backbones • Most animals

  3. Sponges • Porifera ≠ clade • Two possible phyla: • Silicea (most sponges) • Calcarea • Photo Credit: BIOL 1407 Student

  4. Characteristics of Sponges • Cellular organization • Radial or no symmetry • Photo Credit: BIOL 1407 Student

  5. Characteristics of Sponges • Filter feeders • Aquatic • Sessile • Photo Credit: Mila Zinkova, 2008, Wikimedia Commons

  6. Cell Types • Choanocytes • Amoebocytes • Epidermal cells • Porocytes (in some)

  7. Choanoflagellates and Choanocytes

  8. Skeleton • Spicules • Calcium carbonate • Silica • Spongin • Collagen protein • Photo Credit for bath sponges: Alcinoe, 2005, Wikimedia Commons • Photo Credit for Venus’ Flower Basket: NOAA, 2002

  9. Phylum Cnidaria • Hydroids (Hydra, Obelia) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12OmszObAkM&feature=related • Corals and Sea Anemones • Jellies • Cubozoans (sea wasps)

  10. Hydroids Photo Credit for Portuguese Man o’ War: UNK Vieques 2008 Field Trip

  11. Corals and Sea Anemones Photo Credit for Hard Coral: BIOL 1407 Student

  12. Jellies and Cubozoans

  13. Characteristics of Cnidarians • Radial symmetry • Diploblastic • Epidermis • Gastrodermis • Mesoglea • Gastrovascular Cavity • Tentacles with cnidocytes

  14. Two Body Forms

  15. Exchange Processes • Body wall  Two layers of cells • Cell transport occurs at both layers • Water Balance • Ion Balance • Waste Disposal • Gas Exchange

  16. Digestion • Two forms • Intracellular • Extracellular • Extracellular digestion  major evolutionary advance • Allows animals to eat things larger than their cells • Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3VSvyxrwXA

  17. Intracellular vs. Extracellular Digestion

  18. Transport • As cnidarian moves, water moves through GVC • GVC serves as transport system • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCJwHogXtKE&eurl=http://video.aol.com/video-detail/jellyfish-swimming-monterey-bay-aquarium/1285587528

  19. Platyhelminthes • Free-living Flatworms • Planarians • Marine Flatworms • Flukes • Tapeworms

  20. Planarian and Marine Flatworm Photo Credit of planarian: Dr. Stephen Bostic, 2008

  21. Fluke

  22. Tapeworm

  23. Characteristics of Platyhelminths • Bilateral Symmetry • Triploblastic • Acoelomate • Gastrovascular Cavity • Extensive branching • Flat body • Photo Credit: Richard Ling, 2005, Flickr

  24. Exchange Processes • Body is flat and thin  ↑ Surface Area • Highly branched GVC  ↑ Surface Area • Cell transport occurs at both places • Water Balance • Ion Balance • Waste Disposal • Gas Exchange Photo Credit of planarian: Dr. Stephen Bostic, 2008

  25. Transport • GVC serves as transport system • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6N8KZqGAJg&feature=related • Photo Credit: Richard Ling, 2006, Flickr

  26. Excretory System: Protonephridia

  27. Centralized Nervous System

  28. The End Unless otherwise specified, all images in this presentation came from: Campbell, et al. 2008. Biology, 8th ed. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.