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Sponges and Cnidarians. By Tim Allen, Tim Kang, Niko Escanilla, and Paul Woo. Sponges. Phylum = Porifera Scientific name = Calcareous sponge Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge. Sponges. Phylum = Porifera Scientific name = Spongia officinalis Common Name = Bath Sponge.

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sponges and cnidarians

Sponges and Cnidarians

By Tim Allen, Tim Kang, Niko Escanilla, and Paul Woo

  • Phylum = Porifera
    • Scientific name = Calcareous sponge
      • Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge
  • Phylum = Porifera
    • Scientific name = Spongiaofficinalis
      • Common Name = Bath Sponge
  • Phylum = Cnidaria
    • Scientific name = Physaliautriculus
      • Common Name = Bluebottle
  • Phylum = Cnidoria
    • Scientific name = Octocoralliaalcyonacea
      • Common Names = Red Sea Soft Coral
evolution of sponges
Evolution of Sponges
  • Sponges were one of the first animals living on Earth, dating back 730 million years ago.
  • Most are marine (9,000+ species)
  • They share some characteristics with living animals today.
  • Sponges are multicellular but are thought to have evolved from unicellular protists.
    • Multicellularity
      • If they are put through a fine mesh, they separate and then come back together to form a new sponge.
  • Various shapes, sizes, habitats, and colors
  • Sponges date back to the Precambrian era
evolution of cnidarians
Evolution of Cnidarians
  • One of the first animals fossils that were recognized were cnidarians
  • The first cnidarians were composed of soft tissue
  • The earliest Cnidarian fossil discovered is 580 million years of age
symmetry of sponges
Symmetry of Sponges
  • Sponges
    • Asymmetrical
      • They lack symmetry
    • Acoelomate
      • Do NOT have a body cavity
    • Can also have radial symmetry

Pic from- http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=72139&rendTypeId=35

body plan of sponges
Body Plan of Sponges
  • Vocabulary
  • Sessile
    • Firmly attaching to surfaces and not moving
  • Choanocytes
    • Flagellated cells that are found on the interior of the sponge
  • Ostia
    • pores
  • Osculum
    • The opening at the top of a sponge


symmetry and body cavity of cnidarians
Symmetry and Body Cavity of Cnidarians
  • Has radial symmetry
    • A body plan that can be divided into similar halves by

passing a plane at any along a central axis

  • http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/radial.jpg

(this website is for the works cited for this radial symmetry pic)

  • Cnidarians have two tissue layers
    • Outer- epidermis
    • Inner- gastrodermis
        • In the center of the body is that gastrovascular cavity
          • a hollow gut
body plan of cnidarians
Body Plan of Cnidarians
  • Vocabulary
  • Medusa
    • Bell-Shaped
    • Specialized for


  • Polyp
    • Vase-Shaped
    • Specialized a sessile


    • sessile existence
      • Being able to attach

firmly to a surface and

not move

structural support of sponges
Structural Support of Sponges
  • Some sponges are supported by spongin
    • Flexible protein fibers acting as a skeleton for support
  • Other sponges are supported by spicules
    • Small-needlelike made of silicate (silicon dioxide) or calcium carbonate
structural support of cnidarians
Structural Support of Cnidarians
  • The structural support in Cnidarians is Mesoglea
    • Jelly like substance provides structural support in water
nutrition and digestion of sponges


through osculum

Water/food IN

through ostia

Nutrition and Digestion of Sponges
  • Sessile, do not have the ability to pursue food
  • Filter Feed
    • Choanocytes beat flagellum, pumping water in through the ostia, pores
    • Sponges filter the food out of the water
    • Choanocytes trap the food in their small hair-like projections
    • Water leaves through osculum or mouth
nutrition and digestion of cnidarians
Nutrition and Digestion of Cnidarians
  • Cnidocysts capture prey
    • Tentacles are used to capture food
    • Trigger triggers the nematocyst to be expelled
      • The nematocysts sting the prey the spine and trap food with the fillaments
    • Trap food with mucous found at mouth and tentacles
transportation and circulation of sponges
Transportation and Circulation of Sponges
  • Transportation:
  • During the premature stage
    • The larva moves by means of flagella until they find a place to attach to and thus begin their sessile stage
  • Sessile
    • During adulthood
  • Circulation:
    • A sponge has water flow in through its ostia and go out through its osculum
transportation of cnidarians
Transportation of Cnidarians
  • Many adult cnidarians are free-floating
    • In the larval stage, they are free swimmers
      • Larval stage- part of the life cycle of a cnidarian


circulation of cnidarians
Circulation of Cnidarians
  • No specialized systems found in cnidarians that aid in circulation
    • Circulation mainly achieved through diffusion
respiration of sponges
Respiration of Sponges
  • Does not have a respiratory system
    • Takes in water (H2O) through its pores
      • They have canals that move the water throughout the sponge
respiration of cnidarians
Respiration of Cnidarians
  • Goes through diffusion
    • There small body size allows oxygen to diffuse from water through their thick membrane
      • No respiratory structures are needed
        • Lungs, gills, etc.
water balance and excretion in sponges
Water Balance and Excretion in Sponges
  • Sponges beat the flagella of certain cells to pump water in and out of its osculum
  • Sponges have carbon dioxide and other wastes removed quite easily
    • The water moves it in and out through the pores
water balance and excretion in cnidarians
Water Balance and Excretion in Cnidarians
  • Maintain water balance by osmosis
  • Diffuse water through their tissue
reproduction in sponges
Reproduction in Sponges
  • Sponges reproduce both asexually and sexually
    • Asexual reproduction- Budding internally and externally
    • The new sponges are similar to their parents
reproduction in cnidarians
Reproduction in Cnidarians
  • Reproduce both asexually and sexually
    • Asexually- budding or binary fission
      • Binary fission- splitting a parent cell into two equal parts
    • Sexually- an asexual cnidarian reproduces
      • Produces an organism that can reproduce sexually
          • This leads to the variation in generations
a sponges nervous system
A Sponges Nervous System
  • Sponges do not have a nervous system
    • Lack sensory cells and nerve cells
a cnidarians nervous system
A Cnidarians Nervous System
  • Contains a nerve net
    • Has a network of nerve fibers
      • Able to communicate when overlapped
  • Not cephalized
unique facts about sponges29
Unique facts about Sponges
  • The largest sponge ever measured was a Monoraphus sponge
    • It was ten feet wide!!
  • In the Caribbean Sea, sponges can filter all of the water in one day!!
  • Within a sponge, it is possible to find 16,000 other animals!
unique facts about cnidarians
Unique Facts about Cnidarians
  • Over 10,000 species
    • 130 of those species recorded in Sydney Harbor
  • Group name Cnidarian comes from the word nettle
  • The body of the a Cnidarian is a sack with an opening, such as a medusa or a polyp
works cited

"http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=72139&rendTypeId=35." Marriam-Webster. 2006. 7 Apr 2009

http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exhibits/dino/geotime/ geo_time_graphic.gif." 7 Apr 2009

Bird, Jonathan. "http://www.marinefoundation.org/sponge2.gif ." 7 Apr 2009

"http://universe-review.ca/I10-82-cnidaria.jpg ." 7 Apr 2009

Postlethwait, John, and Janet Hopson. Modern Biology. Austin: A Harcourt Education Company, 2006.

"iod.ucsd.edu/~amanda/Files/lab5InvertsI.ppt." 7 Apr 2009



  • http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exhibits/dino/geotime/geo_time_graphic.gif