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Designing An Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program For Copper How An Hour In The Library Can Save You A Week In The Lab. Kelly D. Moran TDC Environmental. Planning for TMDLs.

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Designing An Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program For Copper How An Hour In The Library Can Save You A Week In The Lab

Kelly D. Moran

TDC Environmental

planning for tmdls
Planning for TMDLs
  • Developing a cost-effective compliance strategy for urban runoff programs facing pollutant-specific TMDLs requires information about pollutant sources and feasible control measures
  • Without this information, treating stormwater from existing development appears to be the only compliance option
pollutant sources traditional approach
Pollutant Sources: Traditional Approach
  • POTWs
  • Creeks/rivers
  • Sediments
  • Air deposition
pollutant sources new approach
Pollutant Sources: New Approach
  • Find the pollutantin the watershed
  • Find how it is releasedto surface water
  • Creates opportunities:
    • Eliminate source
    • Control at source
don t start with sampling
Don’t Start with Sampling
  • Monitoring isn’t the greatest way to identify stormwater pollutant sources
    • Need too many samples
    • Most variation due to weather, not sources
  • Working up a stream rarely works
    • Many sources present everywhere

Start withtheliterature

top data sources
Top Data Sources
  • “Gray literature”—reports done by other agencies
    • Ask your network
    • E-mail questions to listservers
    • Web search
  • Scientific literature
    • Best search approach: online databases at university science/engineering libraries
  • Don’t fall for common wisdom (e.g., PCBs are NOT all from transformers)
general approach
General Approach
  • Try to do a mass balance
    • Compare total load to source estimates
    • Estimate total load from monitoring, AB 1429 studies, and even models
  • Avoid land use based estimates
    • These won’t help identify control measures
  • Select approach to match data quality
    • Classify sources as large or small
    • Numeric estimates not always possible
copper uses
Copper Uses
  • Plumbing pipe
  • Heat exchangers, radiators
  • Industrial catalysts and electrodes
  • Jewelry and other decorations
  • Utensils such as pots and pans
  • Coins
  • Fertilizer
  • Roofs, gutters, flashing, and other architectural elements
  • Motor vehicle components like bearings, bushings, gears, and wiring
  • Pesticide (algaecide, fungicide, wood preservative, bactericide)
  • Batteries
  • Blue coloring for consumer products
  • Semiconductor manufacture
urban runoff and shoreline activity copper sources
Urban Runoff and Shoreline Activity Copper Sources
  • Vehicle brake pads
  • Architectural copper
  • Industrial copper use
  • Copper air emissions
  • Copper pesticides (including algaecides)
  • Marine antifouling coatings
  • Soil erosion
  • Copper in domestic water
  • Vehicle fluid leaks and dumping
copper release estimates
Copper Release Estimates

Cu release = Watershed release x wash off fraction

  • Estimate release to watershed
  • Estimate wash off fraction
architectural copper
Architectural Copper
  • Corroded copperwashed off in runoff
  • Annual Cu Releaserates in literature(grams/sq. meter/year)
  • Since release rates based on stormwater measurements—assumed 100% wash off

Cu release = Cu roof areaTOTAL x Annual Cu Release Rate

Cu roof areaLU = AcresLU x Roof CoverageLU x Cu Roof %LU

vehicle brake pads
Vehicle Brake Pads
  • Many brake pads contain copper
  • Wear debris released to air & roads
  • Wear and Cu content in literature
  • BPP wash off estimates (15%-24%)
    • SFEI estimates typical urban Cu wash off fraction is 32%

Cu Release = Nvehicles x %wear x Cuvehicle

copper pesticides
Copper Pesticides
  • Many copper pesticides:
    • Landscaping fungicides
    • Wood preservatives
    • Algaecides
    • Marine antifouling paint
  • Pesticide use releases copper
  • DPR databases
    • Products
    • Sales (statewide)
    • Reported use (by county)
estimating urban pesticide use
Estimating Urban Pesticide Use
  • DPR pesticide use reports (by county)
  • Can pick out urban uses from reports
  • Many uses not reported: remaining use must be estimated
  • Generally scale use estimates on a per capita basis
  • Adjust for pesticide copper content

Cu release = Reported urban use + Unreported use

Unreported Use = Statewide sales – Reported use

pesticide wash off
Pesticide Wash Off
  • Used wash off data from literature:
    • On soils: generally 0.5% to 1%
    • Wood preservatives: about 8%
  • Had to roughly estimate:
    • Algaecides:
      • Lagoons: 100%
      • Pools, spas, fountains: 5%
      • Reservoirs: no release to urban runoff except via domestic water flows
marine coatings
Marine Coatings
  • Copper biocidein boat paint
  • Passive leachingprimary source
  • San Diego studies estimated annual release per average 12.2 meter long boat (grams/year/boat)
  • Release directly to water—no wash off adjustment needed

Cu Release = # Boats x Annual Cu Release Rate

control measure data sources
Control Measure Data Sources
  • Most information in “gray” literature
  • Treatment measures are studied—alternatives are often not studied
    • Many alternatives eliminate the pollutant
    • Often cost, community acceptance, freedom of choice are main issues
  • Local demonstration projects valuable
    • Beware: studying can cost more than implementing
evaluating control measures
Evaluating Control Measures
  • Control at source usually most effective, cheapest
  • Alternatives usually better than BMPs
  • Considerations:
    • What does it cost? Who pays?
    • How much management is needed?
    • Does community accept alternatives?
    • Voluntary or mandatory?
  • Technical Assistance:
    • Ruby Pap, BCDC
    • Joan Edwards and Karen McDowell, SFEP
    • Brake Pad Partnership Steering Committee and Advisors
    • Thomas Barron
    • Nan Singhasemanon, DPR
    • Leigh Johnson, UC Cooperative Extension
    • Brandt Grotte
    • Geoff Siemering, SFEI
    • Geoff Brosseau, BASMAA
    • Arleen Feng, Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program
    • Richard Looker, SF Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board
  • Funding: Clean Estuary Partnership
    • San Francisco Bay area urban runoff programs
    • San Francisco Bay area wastewater treatment plants