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WHAT MAKES US AGE?. Life Cycle II. JOHN TURNER. AGE 77. AGE 67. ELEANOR HYNDMAN. AGE 80. AGE 90. MOVE IT OR LOSE IT--Can you be ACTIVE & OLD?. WHY DO WE AGE?. IS IT GENETICS? ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE?. DEVELOPMENTAL— GENETIC THEORIES

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what makes us age

WHAT MAKES US AGE?

Life Cycle II

slide2

JOHN TURNER

AGE 77

AGE 67

eleanor hyndman
ELEANOR HYNDMAN

AGE 80

AGE 90

why do we age
WHY DO WE AGE?
  • IS IT GENETICS?
  • ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE?
the big question
DEVELOPMENTAL—

GENETIC THEORIES

Genetic makeup determines factors directly affecting aging

Programmed & directed in the body

Aging is Predetermined

ENVIRONMENTAL—

NON- GENETIC THEORIES

Due to random events that occur over time

Aging caused by environmental damage

Controlled extrinsically

THE BIG QUESTION
theories of aging
Theories of Aging
  • Finite Lifespan
  • Immune System Failure
  • Hormonal
  • Energy/Caloric Restriction
  • Error Theory
  • Redundant DNA
  • Transcription
  • Cross-Linking
finite limit theory
Finite Limit Theory
  • Hayflick & Moorehead (1961)
  • Landmark Study--Cells Have Time-clock
  • Cells Have Limited Life Span
    • Apoptosis=Programmed cell death
  • Cells Proliferated and Divided
  • Alterations & Degeneration
  • Cessation of Growth & Division
neuroendocrine hormonal theory
Neuroendocrine & Hormonal Theory
  • Denckla (1974) Endocrinologist Gerontologist
  • Aging Mediated in Brain
  • Functional Decrements in neurons and associated hormones dictates aging rates
immunological theory
Immunological Theory
  • Walford (1969, 1979)
  • Reduced T-cell function with age
    • Decline in Immune System Function
  • Immune System unable to distinguish between self & non-self
    • Age associated increase in autoimmune disorders
    • Lupus, Scleroderma
free radical theory
Free Radical Theory
  • Accumulates Over Time from Oxygen Metabolism
    • Charged Ion with unpaired electron
    • Damages membrane proteins, mitochondria, etc.
    • Decreased cellular integrity
  • Free radicals associated with atherosclerosis, cancer
metabolism free radicals life span
Metabolism, Free Radicals, & Life Span
  • Metabolic Rate Directly Related to Free Radical Production
  • Inverse Relationship Between Metabolic Rate & Life Span
  • Hypothesis--Lower metabolic rate, lower free radical production, increase life span
caloric restriction theory
Caloric Restriction Theory
  • Walford (1987)--”Dr In Vivo”
  • Restriction of Caloric Intake
  • High quality nutrient/low calorie diet increases longevity
    • Supplements with vitamins/minerals/moderate exercise
  • Gradually lose weight until maximal metabolic efficiency, retards aging
error theory
Error Theory
  • Orgel (1963)
  • “Any accident or error in either the machinery or the process of making proteins would cascade into multiple effects”
  • DNA--RNA--protein synthesis
  • Accumulation of errors over time
  • “Error Crisis” result in impaired cell function
redundant dna
Redundant DNA
  • Medvedev (1972)
  • Combination of Finite Limit & Error
  • Ability to repair errors to genetic material decreases with age
  • Errors in Cellular DNA
  • Reserve DNA (error free) utilized
  • Cell death when reserve DNA gone
cross linking theory
Cross-Linking Theory
  • Bjorksten (1942)
  • Proposed Chemical reaction of Cross Linking of Macromolecules related to aging
    • Occurred during sun tanning--lose elasticity
    • Loss of Tissue Elasticity
slide17

WHY SO MANY THEORIES?

“Number of hypotheses is generally inversely proportional to the clarity of the problem.”

--Frolkis

is there a right answer
IS THERE A RIGHT ANSWER?
  • Biologic Gerontology New Field
  • Can One Single Theory Explain All Aging Processes?