Cell Signal Transduction and Diseases. Jimin Shao ( 邵吉民 ) Professor, Dept. Pathology and Pathophysiology Tel: 88208209 E-mail: email@example.com. Introduction: Cell signaling and Signal transduction (1) Cell signaling (2) Types of cellular signals (3) Functions
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Jimin Shao (邵吉民)
Professor, Dept. Pathology and Pathophysiology
Introduction: Cell signaling and Signal transduction (1) Cell signaling
1. Cell Signaling
(1) Direct Intercellular Communication
(2) Signaling by plasma-membrane bound molecules
(3) Receptor-Mediated Intercellular communication
(1) Chemical signals
Hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, cytokines;
odor molecules; ATP, active oxygen; drugs, toxins, etc
(2) Physical signals
Light, electronic, mechanic, UV, heat, volume, osmotic, etc
Act on a far away organ via blood circulation, seen in most hormones
Act on a nearby target, seen in GFs, CKs, etc
Synaptic:Presynaptic to postsynaptic (neurotransmitters)
Act on itself after secreted, seen in GFs, especially in tumor tissues
Act on itself before secreted, seen in nuclear receptors
Microvesicles are membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles shed from the plasma membrane or derived from the endosomal membrane of cells， which can mediate intercellular communication through transferring the vesicular components to recipient cells.
3. Cell Signal Transduction Pathways--Physiological functions--Metabolism--Cell cycle, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis--Responses to stress--etc.
1. Structure of Gap Junction
six of which assemble to form a channel, a connexon.
-- Gap junction intercellular communication down-regulated
-- embryo development (Cx43)
-- nutrients transportation (Cx26)
1. Process of transmembrane signal transduction
Class I nAchR, GABAR, 5-HT3R, GlyR
Class II Glutamate/Aspartate Receptor
Class III cGMP/cAMPR, IP3R, ryanodine R
Class IV ATP/ADP gated channel (P2X)
Three non-identical subunits
(1) Gs, Gi:
GPCR Signaling Pathways
(1) RAS-MAPK PathwayGF--RTK--GRB2—Ras GEF—Ras –-MAPKKK—MAPKK--MAPK (Raf—MEK1/2—ERK1/2)
--Binds to PI(3,4,5)P3
--Activated by a phosphatidylinositol-dependent protein kinase PDK1
--Phosphorylates and inactivates BAD, a pro-apoptosis factor, promotes cell survival
Song MS, Salmena L, Pandolfi PP. The functions and regulation of the PTEN tumour suppressor. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13(5):283-96.
activated by GPCRs and RTKs
(cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases)
TGF-bs, activins, bond morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), etc
Protein serine/threonine kinase;
Single pass transmembrane receptor;
Type I and II
Majid S, Saini S, Dahiya R. Wnt signaling pathways in urological cancers: past decades and still growing. Mol Cancer. 2012;11(1):7.
Jason I. Herschkowitz and Xiaoyong Fu. MicroRNAs Add an Additional Layer to the Complexity of Cell Signaling. Sci. Signal.4 (184), jc5. [DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2002182]