Research methodology
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Research Methodology. Meaning. Clifford Woody

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Meaning
Meaning

Clifford Woody

Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at the last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.


Importance
Importance

  • To gain familiarity or achieve new insights

  • To portray accurately the characteristics of an individual, situation or group

  • To determine the frequency

  • To test a hypothesis


Types of research
Types of Research

  • Descriptive vs Analytical Research

  • Applied vs Fundamental

  • Quantitative vs Qualitative

  • Conceptual vs Empirical

  • One time research

  • Simulation research

  • Exploratory research

  • Historical research

  • Decision oriented



Research process
Research Process

  • Formulating the research problem

  • Extensive literature survey

  • Development of working hypothesis

  • Preparing the research design

  • Determining sample design

  • Deliberate sampling, convenience, judgment

  • Simple random sampling

  • Systematic sampling


Contd
Contd

- Stratified sampling

- Quota sampling

- Cluster sampling & area sampling

- Multi- stage sampling

  • Sequential sampling

  • Collecting the data

  • By observation

  • Personal interview

  • Telephonic interview


Contd1
Contd

  • Mailing questionnaire

  • Schedules

  • Execution of the project

  • Analysis of the data

  • Hypothesis testing

  • Generalization

  • Report preparation


Research problem
Research Problem

  • Individual or group which has a difficulty or problem

  • Some objective to be attained

  • Some alternatives

  • Some doubt in the mind of the researcher

  • Some environment


Technique involved in defining a problem
Technique Involved in Defining a Problem

  • Statement of the problem in a general way

  • Understanding the nature of the problem

  • Surveying the available literature

  • Developing the ideas through discussions

  • Rephrasing the research problem


Points to be observed in defining the problem
Points to be observed in defining the problem

  • Technical terms or phrases should be clearly defined

  • Basic assumptions

  • Statement of value of investigation

  • Time frame and availability of data

  • Scope of investigation


Characteristics of hypothesis
Characteristics of Hypothesis

  • Clear and precise

  • Should be capable of being tested

  • State relationship between variables

  • Must be consistent


Concepts for testing of hypothesis
Concepts for testing of Hypothesis

  • Null and alternative hypothesis

  • Level of significance

  • Decision rule or test of hypothesis

  • Type I & type II errors

  • Two-tail and one-tailed tests


Procedure for hypothesis testing
Procedure for hypothesis testing

  • Making a formal statement

  • Selecting a significance level

  • Deciding the distribution

  • Selecting a random sample

  • Calculating values

  • Comparing the probability