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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. (Business Research Methods). Week 3. Decision-Making. Decision-Making is the process of resolving a problem or choosing amongst alternative opportunities What is the problem or opportunity? How much Information is available? What Information is needed?. Absolute

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research methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

(Business Research Methods)

Week 3

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

decision making
Decision-Making

Decision-Making is the process of resolving a

problem or choosing amongst alternative

opportunities

  • What is the problem or opportunity?
  • How much Information is available?
  • What Information is needed?

Absolute

Ambiguity

Complete

Certainty

Decision-Making

Situation

Value of Research

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

certainty uncertainty ambiguity
Certainty, Uncertainty, Ambiguity
  • Certainty – Decision-maker has all the requisite information concerning the business problem (or opportunity). Research may be unnecessary. Complete certainty about the future is rare in practice
  • Uncertainty – General nature of the business problem is clear but information about alternative courses of action is incomplete as are the events which may occur. Research may be a potentially valuable tool here
  • Ambiguity – Nature of the problem to be solved is unclear. Objectives are vague and alternatives difficult to define. Research may be a useful excercise

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

types of research
Types of Research

Exploratory Research:

  • undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems
  • general problems usually known but not sufficiently understood
  • the purpose is to get more information, not to uncover specific courses of action (subsequent research)

Determining a specific course of action to follow is not a

purpose of exploratory research!

Example: Child-Care support programme for employees

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

types of research1
Types of Research

Descriptive Research:

  • undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics of a population or phenomenon
  • Previous knowledge of problem exists
  • High degree of precision or accuracy required

Examples:

Who are the main consumers of organic foods?

How many students read the prescribed course literature?

Where do most holiday-makers travelling overseas go?

When do petrol stations tend to raise their prices?

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

types of research2
Types of Research

Causal Research:

  • undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships amongst variables
  • are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research studies
  • Often difficult to determine because of the influence of other variables (concommitant Variation and the presence of other hidden variables)

Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more

people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?))

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

stages in the research process
Stages in the Research Process

Define

Problem

Planning a

Research Design

Conclusions

and Report

Planning

a Sample

Processing and

Analysing the Data

Gathering

the Data

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

forward and backward linkages
Forward and Backward Linkages
  • Forward Linkage – The earlier stages of a research project determine the design at a later stage

Example: The goal of the research project will determine the selection of the sample and the way data is collected

  • Backward Linkage – The later stages of a research project determine how its earlier stages are conducted

Example: The company executives require certain specific information which the researcher anticipates and for which he or she plans the data collection and analysis steps accordingly

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

flowcharting the research process 1
Flowcharting the Research Process (1)

Problem Discovery

Selection of

exploratory

research technique

Secondary (historical) data

Pilot Study

Experience Survey

Case Study

Problem Definition

(Statement of research objectives)

Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)

Experiment (Laboratory, Field)

Secondary Data Study

Observation

Selection of

basic research

method

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

flowcharting the research process 2
Flowcharting the Research Process (2)

Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)

Experiment (Laboratory, Field)

Secondary Data Study

Observation

Collection of Data (Fieldwork)

Editing and Coding Data

Sample Design

Data Processing and Analysis

Interpretation of Findings

Probability

Sampling

Non-Probability

Sampling

Report

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

ethical considerations in business research
Ethical Considerations in Business Research
  • Ethics & Morals
  • Societal norms and values
  • Divergent perceptions of what is considered ethical and unethical
  • What is “ethical” in business research?
  • Ethical Guidelines and professional associations

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

ethical interfaces in business research
Ethical Interfaces in Business Research

Clients’ Rights

Subjects’ Rights

Researchers’ Obligation

Researchers’ Obligation

Research

Subject

Researcher

Research

Sponsor

Researchers’ Rights

Researchers’ Rights

Subjects’ Obligation

Clients’ Obligation

Subjects Rights & Clients Obligation

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

ethical behavior considerations research subjects
Ethical Behavior Considerations:Research Subjects
  • Truthfulness in giving information to the researcher if a research subject or respondent gives his or her consent to participate in a research study
  • Sustained cooperativeness with the researcher throughout the course of the research study
  • Adhere to responsibility if informed consent is given to the researcher
  • State any constraints or limitations in advance

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

ethical behavior considerations researchers
Ethical Behavior Considerations:Researchers
  • No deception, be forthright and do not conceal the true purpose of the research
  • Maintain objectivity, courtesy and high professional standards through scientific process
  • No falsification, alteration or misrepresentation of data for political or other purposes
  • Protect the confidentiality of the research subjects and research sponsors
  • No faulty conclusions
  • No inclusion or use of information or ideas contained in competing research proposals

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

ethical behavior considerations research sponsors
Ethical Behavior Considerations:Research Sponsors
  • No request for submission of competitive bids by researchers if selection of the researcher has already been made
  • Avoid manipulation and influencing of the researcher with a view to discrediting individuals or organizations
  • The conclusions drawn from research work should be consistent with the data and not influenced by other undesirable conditions or motives
  • Observe the confidentiality of the research subjects and researcher
  • Avoid Advocacy Research

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

the menace of plagiarism
The Menace of Plagiarism

Please read the CIIT Academic Honesty Policy compiled by Mr. Laeeq-ur-Rehman Khan which is distributed in this class as a separate sheet

ZERO TOLERANCE (and ZERO MARKS) for cheating and plagiarism at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology!

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

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