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Origins of American Government. Basic Concepts of Our Government (Obj. 8). Ordered Government Organized regulation of the state Limited Government Government is not all-powerful Individuals have certain rights the govt cannot take away Representative Government

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basic concepts of our government obj 8
Basic Concepts of Our Government (Obj. 8)
  • Ordered Government
    • Organized regulation of the state
  • Limited Government
    • Government is not all-powerful
    • Individuals have certain rights the govt cannot take away
  • Representative Government
    • Government should serve the will of the people
landmark english documents
Landmark English Documents
  • Magna Carta (1215)
    • Barons were tired of King John’s unfair treatment (wars, taxes)
    • Established principle that the power of the monarchy is NOT absolute

King John signing the Magna Carta

landmark english docs 2
Landmark English Docs (2)
  • Petition of Right (1628)
    • King Charles I asked Parliament for more $$ in taxes
    • Parliament refused until he signed the Petition of Right
    • Challenged the idea of the Divine Right of Kings and declared the monarch MUST follow the law of the land
landmark english docs 3
Landmark English Docs (3)
  • English Bill of Rights (1689)
    • After Glorious Revolution, Parliament wanted to prevent abuse of power by monarchs
    • List of conditions that the king and queen HAD to agree to before taking the crown

King William and Mary of Orange

the english colonies obj 9
The English Colonies (Obj. 9)
  • The 13 North American colonies formed separately over 125 years
  • 1st – Virginia in 1607
  • Last – Georgia in 1733
  • Each colony was unique, and formed out of different sets of circumstances
  • Each had a charter – written grant of authority (permission to govern) from the king
3 types of colonies
3 Types of Colonies
  • Royal Colonies
  • Proprietary Colonies
  • Charter Colonies
1 royal colonies
1. Royal Colonies
  • Controlled by the British crown (King)
  • King appointed a governor to run the colony
  • A council appointed by the king served as advisors to the governor
  • Had a bicameral legislature = 2 houses
    • Upper house = the governor’s advisors.
    • Lower house = elected by property owners who could vote
  • Most of the colonies were royal colonies
2 proprietary colonies
2. Proprietary Colonies
  • Organized by a proprietor (business owner) who had been given a grant by the king
  • Proprietor appointed the governor to run the colony
  • 3 colonies were proprietary:
    • Maryland: Lord Baltimore
    • Pennsylvania and Delaware: William Penn
3 charter colonies
3. Charter colonies
  • charter: a written document given to a colony granting it the right to govern.
  • The charter colonies had more freedom to govern than others
  • Governor elected by male landowners
  • 2 colonies: Rhode Island and Connecticut
colonial self government obj 10
Colonial Self-Government (Obj. 10)
  • The pilgrims landed with no charter with rules or instructions on how to govern
  • So they drew up a social contract
  • Mayflower Compact (1620)
    • Pilgrims agreed to follow the rules in order to survive
    • Laid out rules of the colony
    • Signed by 41 of the original 101 passengers
colonial self govt cont
Colonial Self-Govt (cont.)
  • Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)
    • First representative assembly (legislature) in the North American colonies
    • Met at a church in Jamestown, 1x per year
    • Governor was appointed by officials in London
    • Governor appointed his own 6-man council
    • Other 15 members of the legislature were elected by landowners
colonial self govt cont1
Colonial Self-Govt (Cont.)
  • Britain = 3,000 mi (2 month boat ride) away
  • Before 1760, Britain did not concern itself much with the colonies
  • Colonies got used to self-government
  • Very few taxes collected from the colonies by the king
  • They could even control the royal governors –
    • Colonial legislatures had the “power of the purse”
things change 1760 obj 10
Things change: 1760 (Obj. 10)
  • 1760: King George III takes the throne
  • England is at war over foreign territories (French and Indian War)
  • Many colonists fought for Britain in this war
britain s colonial policies
Britain’s colonial policies
  • French-Indian War (aka 7 Years War) cost Britain lots of $$$
  • To pay its debts, Britain turned to the colonies
    • Enforced existing policies
    • Imposed new taxes
  • Colonists objected:

“no taxation without

representation”

stamp act of 1765
Stamp Act of 1765

Required that all legal documents and public documents (ex. Contracts, newspapers) have a stamp on it.

The stamp cost money, which went directly to the British government

stamp act congress 1765
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
  • 9 colonies sent delegates (representatives) to the Stamp Act Congress in New York
  • Wrote a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” to King George
  • *1st time colonies joined forces and opposed the British government**
  • Result: Stamp Act was repealed, but…
    • Parliament continued to impose new laws and taxes on the colonies
    • Colonists began to boycott British products
slide20

Rising Conflict:

The Boston Tea Party (1773)

slide21

Rising Conflict:

The Boston Massacre (1770)

organized resistance
Organized Resistance
  • Samuel Adams formed the Committees of Correspondence in 1772
  • Provided information network among anti-British groups
  • Organized protests, militias, boycotts
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