Chemistry 102 biochemistry outline for proteins
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Chemistry 102 BIOCHEMISTRY OUTLINE FOR PROTEINS. 1. POLYMER : Polypeptide 2. MONOMER : Amino Acids 3. BOND(S) : Peptide, Hydrogen, Electrostatic, Disulfide 4. STRUCTURES : “ Describe” a. A Single Amino Acid A Peptide Bond

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Chemistry 102 biochemistry outline for proteins l.jpg
Chemistry 102BIOCHEMISTRYOUTLINE FOR PROTEINS


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1.POLYMER : Polypeptide

2. MONOMER : Amino Acids

3. BOND(S) :

Peptide, Hydrogen, Electrostatic, Disulfide

4. STRUCTURES : “Describe”

a. A Single Amino Acid

  • A Peptide Bond

  • Primary (1o) : Exact Sequence of Amino Acids

    d. Secondary (2o ) : a - Helix or b-Pleats (Hydrogen Bonding)

    e. Tertiary (3o ) : Coiling and Bending of a - Helix (3-D Shape)

    f. Quaternary (4o ) : Aggregation of Sub-Units(Biologically Active)


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5. FUNCTIONS

a. Biological Catalysts : Enzymes

b. Transport : Oxygen, Iron, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids

c. Regulation : Hormones/Short Polypeptides

d. Storage : Non-Carbohydrate/Non-Lipid

e. Structural : Connective Tissue

f. Movement : Muscles g. Defense : Immunity

6. EXAMPLES

a. Chymotrypsin

b. Hemoglobin

c. Insulin

d. Albumin

e. Collagen

f. Actin/Myosin

g. IgG, IgM, IgA

7. CHARACTERISTICS: The “structure” of the molecule determines the “function” of the molecule. Globular proteins are soluble in water. Fibrous proteins are insoluble in water. They are extremely diverse in both structure and function.


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Chemistry 102BIOCHEMISTRYOUTLINE FOR CARBOHYDRATES


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1. POLYMER : Polysaccharide

2. MONOMER : Monosaccharide

3. BOND(S) :

Glycosidic, Ether, Hydrogen

4. STRUCTURES : “Describe”

a. A Glucose - Like Monosaccharide

  • A Fructose - Like Monosaccharide

    c. Lactose (Galactose-O-Glucose)

  • Sucrose (Glucose-O-Fructose)

  • Maltose (Glucose-O-Glucose)


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5. FUNCTIONS

a. Provide Energy

b. Store Energy

c. Provide Structure : Cell Walls of Bacteria and Plants

d. Permeability of Cell Membranes

e. Taste(Sweet)

6. EXAMPLES

a. Glucose

b. Glycogen

c. Cellulose

d. Glycoproteins

e. Sucrose

7. CHARACTERISTICS: Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of biological molecule. The bulk of carbohydrates are produced by photosynthesis from plants. They are for the most part polyalcohols which hydrogen bond making them extremely soluble in water. They are usually crystalline and hard and become sticky when water is added.


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Chemistry 102BIOCHEMISTRYOUTLINE FOR LIPIDS


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1. POLYMER : Lipids

2. MONOMER : Fatty Acids

3. BOND(S) : Ester, Phosphoester, Hydrogen

4. STRUCTURE : “Describe”

a. A Fatty Acid

b. A Triacylglycerol (Triglyceride)

c. A Phosphoglyceride (Phosphodiglyceride)

d. A Cell Membrane (Phospholipid Bi-layer)

e. A Sterol Ring (Cholesterol or Vitamin D)


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5. FUNCTIONS

a. Membrane Structure

b. Store Energy

c. Regulation and Transport

d. Brain and Nerve Transmission

e. Cleansing Agents

6. EXAMPLES

a. Phosphoglycerides

b. Triacylglycerols

c. Cholesterol

d. Sphingomyelin

e. Soaps/Detergents

7. CHARACTERISTICS: Pure lipids are insoluble in water due to their non-polar nature. Some lipids are partially soluble in water due to their partial polar nature. Some lipids are bifunctional because they have both polar and non-polar regions. Lipids give taste to meat which is referred to as marbling. Next to proteins lipids are next most diverse type of macromolecule.


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Chemistry 102BIOCHEMISTRYOUTLINE FOR NUCLEIC ACIDS


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1. POLYMER : Polynucleotide

2. MONOMER : Mononucleotide

3. BOND(S) : Phosphodiester, Covalent, Hydrogen

4. STRUCTURES : “Describe”

a. A Nitrogenous Base (Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine)

b. A Nucleotide Triphosphate (ATP, GTP, TTP,CTP)

c. A Ribose or Deoxyribose Sugar

d. A Single-Stranded RNA Molecule

e. A Double-Stranded DNA Molecule


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5. FUNCTIONS

a. Informational (DNA in the nucleus of the cell)

b. Transformational (RNA mostly in the cytoplasm)

c. Provide Energy

d. Transfer Energy

e. Metabolism

6. EXAMPLES

a. DNA

b. m-,r- & t-RNA

c. ATP

d. GTP

e. UTP, CTP & TTP

7. CHARACTERISTICS: Thymine is found only in DNA, while uracil is found only in RNA. DNA is double-stranded, while RNA is single-stranded. DNA is relatively large, while RNA is relatively small. DNA is found only in the nucleus of the cell, while RNA is found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The genetic code is based on three-base-pair “codons” which code for amino acids.


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