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notice
NOTICE

THIS PRESENTATION MAY BE COPIED AND DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT COST. IT MAY ALSO BE MODIFED IF THE CREDITS AND THIS NOTICE ARE NOT REMOVED.

You are encouraged to send copies of derived articles and upgraded slides to bruce@discussIT.org. The most recent version of this work may be found at www.discussIT.org.

e guideways
e-Guideways

Bruce A. McHenry

bmchenry@alum.mit.edu

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Presentation created by: Bruce A. McHenry e-Guideway Association (bmchenry@alum.mit.edu)Modified by Palle R Jensen

Particular thanks to:RUF International (Palle Jensen)MegaRail Transportation Systems (Kirston Henderson)

Special thanks to Professor Jerry SchneiderUniversity of Washington for hisInnovative Transportation Technologies web site

transportation is vital to us

Transportation is Vital to US

Consumes 19% of average household expenditures ($7,759)

4,000,000,000,000 passenger-miles in four-wheel vehicles

200,000,000 four-wheel vehicles

Consumes 14 million barrels/day out of 20 million total

Air carriers only 500,000,000,000 passenger miles (1/8 of car miles)

177 billion gallons gasoline / year

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

current political sense
Current Political Sense

“Freedom Car”

High Speed Trains

Maglev Trains

Light Rail

freedom car
“Freedom Car”
  • Losses incurred during catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons are not offset by efficiency of H2 fuel cells
  • Electrolysis, distribution, storage and conversion of H2 incurs heavy energy losses relative to using the electricity directly for propulsion
  • Solves none of the “presenting complaints” about congestion, safety, etc.
  • On-board storage is highly problematic (-423ºF liquid; 90,000psi gas; at best 100 kilos / gallon equivalent using metal hydride)
high speed trains
High Speed Trains
  • < 300 miles: slower than 100MPH guideways door-to-door and far more costly on passenger-mile basis
  • > 300 miles: slower and more expensive than planes

Maglev trains have similar characteristics, only much, much more expensive.

light rail
Light Rail
  • Typically serves only 1% of commuters where used
  • Average subsidy per passenger equivalent to purchasing a car
  • Relatively slow
  • Requires large amount of public space
  • Most dangerous form of transportation
slide9

“Freedom Car”

High Speed Trains

Maglev Trains

Light Rail

slide10

Winning Platforms

e-Cars with AHS technology

Hybrid Electric Cars e-Guideways

most probable evolution

Most Probable Evolution

TCAS for cars

“Platooning” (cars in a pod)

e-Guideways

what is a dualmode vehicle
What is a Dualmode Vehicle?

A dualmode vehicle travels under manual control on the street network for some portion of its trip, and operates under automatic control on an exclusive guideway for some other portion.

Images courtesy of RUF International

remember
Remember…

fear exists for a reason

slide16

What if a 9/11 happened every month or every year?

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

January

February

March

July

August

Sept.

April

May

June

October

November

December

July

August

Sept.

March

February

January

October

November

December

April

May

June

3000 killed every month 100 billion damage every year
3000 killed every month100 billion damage every year

Photo: Philip Greenspun

42,000 deaths/yr.1,600,000 injuries/yr100 billion/year property damage

1 safety
1. Safety

Guideways support high speeds with great safety…

Images courtesy of RUF International & AVT Train.com

footnote braking on the guideway could be swift and certain
Footnote: Braking on the guideway could be swift and certain.

Images courtesy of RUF International

2 50 80 aero drag reduction
2. 50-80+% Aero Drag Reduction

Only the first and last cars need experience large aerodynamic forces

Image courtesy of RUF International

aerodynamic drag 80
Aerodynamic Drag > 80%

Crossover point is at 70kph for Chevy Lumina APV

2 large reductions in rolling resistance also
2. Large reductions in rolling resistance also

because:1) if the steel guideway is very smooth… 2) then the wheels can be hard with low rolling resistance

e.g. multiple polyethylene wheels that will roll smoothly over expansion joints

2 large reductions in rolling resistance also26
2. Large reductions in rolling resistance also

Another 3x reduction in rolling resistance possible due to:3) appropriatesize, low average weight (1000 lbs.)

> 6x less rolling resistance

Photos courtesy of Global Electric Motorcars, LLC

note traction is independent of road conditions
Note: Traction is Independent of Road Conditions

In RUF design, rail wheels are

smooth wheels.

Traction friction can be

adjusted by changing

pressure against top rail

Image courtesy of RUF International

maglev
Maglev?

Magnetic levitation might someday offer much more reduction in rolling resistance.However, aerodynamic drag would still dominate running efficiency.

Image courtesy of AVT-Train.com

2 much more energy efficient
2. MUCH MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT

2-4x aerodynamic & 6x rolling friction reductions

=> Running efficiency improves 2-4X

Image courtesy of RUF International

3 mostly electric propulsion
3. MOSTLY ELECTRIC PROPULSION

Allows cars to be lighter and muchless expensive to run (energy + maintenance)

Electrified guideway

Image courtesy of RUF International

3 mostly electric propulsion32
3. MOSTLY ELECTRIC PROPULSION

Solves range problem of all-electric cars. Makes e-cars practical…within urban areasor between them.

Image courtesy of RUF International

what is the propulsion efficiency
What is the Propulsion Efficiency?

New natural gas power plants (55%)

Transmission efficiency (85%)

Electric motor efficiency (90%)

Overall: 41%

Compare with 15% for typical internal combustion engine (ICE) or 28% for hybrid-electric

new caf

New CAFÉ?

Conventionally Sized Van: 25 MPG at 65 MPH

At 100 MPH, it would get 11 MPG.

(25 / (100/65)2)

Efficiency decreases approximately as square of speed

when aerodynamic drag predominates

new caf37

New CAFÉ?

Conventionally Sized e-Van: 11 * 4.5 = 50 MPG at 100 MPH

Prius (mid-size) Car:

45 MPG at 80 MPH

28 MPG at 100 MPH

28 * 4.5 = 127 MPG at 100 MPH

cost to power a mid size car
Cost to Power a Mid-Size Car?

MEDIAN SIZE CAR:15HP at 55MPH

ON e-GUIDEWAY:→ 100MPH with 3x better running efficiency…

Generation & transmission cost of 1 kWh: $0.10

What is the electricity cost to travel 100 miles in an hour?

Running efficiency gain = 3Efficiency of electric motor = 90%

Loss due to higher speed = (100/55)3 = 6.0

Power needed at 100MPH: 15*6/3*0.9 = 33 HP or 25 kW

$2.50

savings over 100 miles in mid size car
Savings over 100 Miles in Mid-Size Car?

e-Guideway at 100 MPH

$2.50 or 2.5 cents per mile

vs.

Hybrid-Electric at 70 MPH

50 MPG: 2 gallons at $2.00 = $4.00

4.0 cents per mile

SAVES

1.5 cents per mile

Note: $.015 * 3,000,000,000,000 = $45 billion

4 land use
4. LAND USE

Guideways carry about 10x as many passengers/hr as a highway lane.

Image courtesy of RUF International

4 much lower land use
4. MUCH LOWER LAND USE

…and they occupy about 1/10th the footprint of a single lane

Image courtesy of MegaRail Transportation Systems

Image courtesy of RUF International

1 100
1:100?

… but MUCH LOWER LAND USE

5 user comfort convenience
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Any time, door-to-door

Images courtesy of RUF International

5 user comfort convenience44
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Congestion free

Image courtesy of RUF International

5 user comfort convenience45
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Images courtesy of RUF International

5 user comfort convenience46
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Images courtesy of RUF International

Can work, sleep or play

5 user comfort convenience47
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Images courtesy of RUF International

5 user comfort convenience48
5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Faster than air travel up to 500 miles.> Door-to-door DC to NYC areas: <3 hours> Cross the nation in three nights: About $100 one-way for small family in a “sleeper-van”

6 dramatically reduced maintenance for the all electric models
6. DRAMATICALLY REDUCED MAINTENANCE FOR THE ALL-ELECTRIC MODELS
  • Vastly simpler electric motor
    • No ignition system
    • No valves
    • No piston rings
    • No motor vibration
  • Regenerative braking
  • No muffler
  • No clutch
  • No high speed salt spray
7 inexpensive short term car rental
7. INEXPENSIVE SHORT-TERM CAR RENTAL
  • … because of low maintenance, virtually zero accidents, and reduced pick-up and point-of-return constraints.
  • Encourages people to lease cars (besides their commute vehicles) according to need, e.g.:
    • Family outing SUV
    • Cargo van
    • Sleeper cars
    • etc.
8 facilitates automated freight
8. FACILITATES AUTOMATED FREIGHT
  • Less need for trans-shipment terminals.
  • Faster
  • Greater predictability and shorter lead times facilitate “just-in-time” delivery systems
9 national security
9. NATIONAL SECURITY

End dependence on Middle East oil

=> Freedom from risk of supply disruption

=> Slow flow of funds to régimes based on terror

slide53
BUT
  • Does it make economic sense?
  • Will it fit downtown?
  • What about the visual impact?
  • How long will it take?
cost components
Cost Components
  • Power generation
  • Guideway construction
new power demand57
New Power Demand

Current national use 3.7 billion Mwh(2003)

new power demand58
New Power Demand

Current national use of 3.7 billion Mwh15 * 0.75 * (100/55)3 / 3 * 1.11 = 25 Kw on guideway

new power demand59
New Power Demand

Current national use of 3.7 billion Mwh15 * 0.75 * (100/55)3 / 3 * 1.11 = 25 Kw on guideway1,000 miles/yr or 67hrs/yr at 15 mph and 2kW = 134 kWh/vehicle/yr30,000 miles/yr or 300 hrs/yr at 100 mph and 25 kW = 6,900 Kwh/vehicle/yr

new power demand60
New Power Demand

Current national use of 3.7 billion Mwh15 * 0.75 * (100/55)3 / 3 * 1.11 = 25 Kw on guideway1,000 miles/yr or 67hrs/yr at 15 mph and 2kW = 134 kWh/vehicle/yr30,000 miles/yr or 300 hrs/yr at 100 mph and 25 kW = 6,900 Kwh/vehicle/yr150 million e-cars * 7 Mwh = 1.5 billion Mwh avg. demand

new power demand61
New Power Demand

Current national use of 3.7 billion Mwh150 million e-cars * 7 Mwh = 1.5 billion Mwh avg. demand

1,400 billion ton-miles of truck freight partially converted to1,000 billion ton-miles of e-van freightAverage van load: 800 lbs2000/800 * 1000 = 2,500 billion miles of e-van freighte-van uses 40 Kwh on guideway per 100 miles.4 * 2500 = 1000 billion Kwh = 1.0 billion Mwh e-freight

new power demand62
New Power Demand

Current national use of 3.7 billion Mwh150 million e-cars * 7 Mwh = 1.5 billion Mwh avg. demand.4 * 2500 = 1000 billion Kwh = 1.0 billion Mwh e-freight

Projected demand increase due to e-guideways is2.5 billion Mwh

Probable doubling of electricity supply

we can generate another 4 billion mwh
We can generate another 4 billion Mwh.

If oil costs increase sharply,we will know that we MUST generate another 4 billion Mwh

FROM NON-OIL sources.

so while demand can be met with oil or gas fired power plants we might use
So while DEMAND CAN BE MET WITH OIL OR GAS FIRED POWER PLANTS, we might use

New Power Systems

so while demand can be met with oil or gas fired power plants we might use65
So while DEMAND CAN BE MET WITH OIL OR GAS FIRED POWER PLANTS, we might use

Wind Farms

Solar CellFarms

Image courtesy of Energy Electronics Institute, National AIST, Japan

we might also use meltdown proof nuclear reactors based on transportable uranium pebbles
We might also use meltdown-proof nuclear reactors based on transportableuranium pebbles

Image courtesy of Eskom, South Africa

pebble bed nuclear power
“Pebble Bed” Nuclear Power

Image courtesy of Eskom, South Africa

but even if we mainly use coal
...BUT even if we mainly use coal…

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be substantially less that with gasoline, diesel OR hydrogen.

slide70
Guideway

Construction

Cost?

how many miles of guideway
How Many Miles of Guideway?

How many miles needed for metropolitan areas?

how many miles of guideway72
How Many Miles of Guideway?

WDC is a metro area with 6 million residents

100 subway miles * 4 = 400100 beltway miles = 100Total miles = 600100 miles per million residents

how many miles total
How Many Miles Total?
  • 100 miles per million metro area residents
  • 200 million metro area residents nationwide

=> 20,000miles of metro guideway

40,000miles along interstates

cost of e guideway
Cost of E-Guideway

EXPENSIVE!..

and we can only take an educated guess:

  • 20,000 metropolitan miles @ $40 million per mile = $800 billion
  • 40,000 miles of interstate @ $5 million per mile = $200 billion
  • System cost about the same as initial construction of the interstate highway system ($1 trillion)
e guideways will be expensive
e-Guideways will be Expensive

so…

Can they be justified?

Would they pay off?

1 value of saved drive time
#1: Value of Saved Drive-Time

Frees up about 30 minutes from 55* min avg. daily drive time: .5 * 365 =183 hrs/yr.Eliminates >80% of long distance driving (4000* miles/yr): 3200 / 60 =53 hours/yr.120 million drivers (est.) (183 + 53) * 120M = 28,320 million hr/yr$5/hr * 28M = $140B* Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

2 value of time stuck in traffic
#2: Value of Time Stuck in Traffic

80% reduction of time stuck in traffic at cost of $517/person* (2001) and estimated cost of $1300 per capita by 2015 (8% growth*)0.8 * 1300 * 120M (est.) = $125B* Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

3 savings from eliminated accidents
#3: Savings from Eliminated Accidents

Approximately $100 billion/yr saved on insurance premiums and cost on non-covered accidents.

Additional savings in personal medical expenses. $100B?

Value of lives saved: $40B?Injuries not suffered: $40B?

4 national security
#4: National Security

At least $100 billion/yr. for reduced cost of military preparedness and stabilization operation in Middle East.(e.g. Additional cost of Operation Iraqi Freedom is approximately $100 billion/yr in FY 2004, 2005)

Ought to be funded by $1 per gallon tax on 177 billions gallons consumed annually?

6 reduced cost of new cars
#6: Reduced Cost of New Cars

Doubling the longevity of cars: $150 billion

1/3rd reduction in the price of 50% of new cars owing to the simplicity and lighter weight of all-electric drive: $50 billion offset by the increased complexity of hybrid dualmode vehicles -$50 billion.

7 savings due to car sharing
#7: Savings Due to Car Sharing

Sharing of cars much more conveniently and affordably because of greatly reduced point-of-return requirements and liability. No first car, second or third one reduces $300 billion capital investment in new cars by perhaps 10%-20% = $15-30 billion (out of $150 billion)  Also, car sharing and smaller cars able to self park in dense configurations will also pare parking expenses (and make it possible to reduce or eliminate street parking). If 5% of 200m cars could pay $10 instead of $50/month to park: 10m * 40 * 12 = $5 billion.

8 less truck driving
#8: Less Truck Driving

50% reduction in the cost of drivers for combination trucks: $20 billion

9 reduced highway maintenance
#9: Reduced Highway Maintenance

$29 billion →

$20 billion

→ much less

10 end of subsidies for other transit
#10: End of Subsidies for Other Transit

Light rail, bus, AMTRAK, airlines subsidies vary by year but range from $10 to $20 billion at Federal level alone.

total value 0 5t yr
Total Value > $0.5T/yr.

Suggests payback period is only 2 years.

total value 0 5t yr87
Total Value > $0.5T/yr.

Suggests that the e-guideway construction costs could be paid back to society only two years after operation commences… if vehicles are dualmode capable at that time.

another justification
Another Justification

e-guideway construction and associated redevelopment will employ some 600,000 Americans ($100B / $150,000) for about 50 years

and many quality of life benefits
And Many Quality of Life Benefits
  • Improved mobility & safetyi.e. access to friends, family & recreation
  • Dramatic lowering of traffic impact on high density areas
  • Potential to remodel public spaces
  • Dramatic improvement in ripeness of fruits and vegetables
  • Major facilitator of Internet commerce
slide91

US passenger travel per capita per day by all modes.Toward green mobility: the evolution of transportJesse H. Ausubel, Cesare Marchetti, Perrin Meyer

slide92

YES

by building e-guideways first of all in the cities to reduce and eliminate street traffic and reduce average “mass transit” trip times by about 75%

what stages will precede guideways in the next 2 decades
What Stages will Precede Guideways in the Next 2 Decades???
  • Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS) for Cars
  • Short car-trains (pods) on streets and highways using Adaptive Cruise Control++ (extremely short headways, with optional automatic steering in follower mode)
peas in a pod cars in a platoon
Peas in a Pod; Cars in a ”Platoon?”

Photo courtesy of INRIA (l'Institut National de Recherche en Informatique)

new speed limits mph
New Speed Limits (MPH)

Distance from guideway ramp (in blocks)

what about chain collisions in street platoons
What about chain collisions in street platoons?

Platoons are liable to involve multiple vehicles in accidents.

Hence wherever they are used, much more fail-safe collision prevention techniques are needed.

tcas will prevent collisions
TCAS will Prevent Collisions
  • Low cost vehicle transponders to report velocity, position and intentions
  • Allows dynamic right-of-way assessment
  • New cars brake automatically in case of impending collision
  • Almost certain to be cheaper and more effective than airbags
  • May be retrofitted
  • Aka “TCAS for cars”, it uses locally assisted GPS and self-healing low power radio networks
  • Should be based on an open standard (e.g. WiFi (802.11a/b/g)
platoons can promote traffic calming
Platoons can Promote Traffic Calming

Transponders will allow a new operational régime in urban areas:

  • Platooned cars
  • Right-of-way negotiated well in advance of intersections (think of raindrops on a windowpane) so that vehicles can maintain a slow but steady pace with few red lights.
  • More frequent light changes
  • Averagesurface speed similar to zero congestion on 2-way streets with non-sequenced lights
  • Vehicles may have right-of-way but signals confirm on-board directions for drivers
  • Pedestrian and bicycle safe speed limits (10MPH except near thoroughfares
automated buses taxis will be much easier to build safer if they can platoon on the street
Automated buses & taxis will be much easier to build (& safer) if they can platoon on the street

…because it is easier to make a car automatically join a platoon than drive all by itself.

Automated taxi stands could be on every downtown block.

Fleets could circulate automatically to meet demand. (Initially, professional drivers could drive lead vehicles; eventually this qualification would be part of a standard license requirement; ultimately, cars will drive themselves)

Early model e-cars would be designed to automatically self-park very densely in garages.

note physically coupled cars could also help solve the off guideway range limitation of e cars
Note: Physically coupled cars could also help solve the off guideway range limitation of e-cars.

Liquid fueled trucks and SUVs could be fitted with a retractable tail boom. The heavy lead vehicles would provide crash protection to light e-cars. However, the licensing and operational régimes would have to be strictly controlled.

FlexiTrain

possible evolution of us surface transportion

POSSIBLE EVOLUTION OF US SURFACE TRANSPORTION

  • Inexpensive, semi-automatic TCAS for cars
  • Very close followingcars & mini-busesin platoons (length limited by the probability of collisions)
  • First metropolitan guideway
  • Restrictions placed on old cars in CBDs.
  • Coast-to-coast national guideway
  • Fully self-driving “traxis”
  • Last Amtrak train! (to run on bicentennial in 2025?)
  • Subway system upgrades begin
  • Begin construction of derail-proof surface rail guideways for dualmode heavy trucks
  • Only two lanes maintained on Interstates (with embedded rails).
current leaders
Current Leaders
  • RUF International
  • MegaRail
  • BladeRunner
megarail
MegaRail

MegaRail Transportation Systems proposes a micro-rail for urban areas and a separate higher capacity system for interstate use.

several more serious entrepreneurs
Several More Serious Entrepreneurs

New entries?

Image Credits: Blade Runner, Tritrack, German Autoshuttle

needs of e guideways
Needs of e-Guideways

About 10 years and about $100 billion R&D investment (10%) is desirable to optimize designs and manufacturing processes for eventual construction throughout the continent.

Progress could be greatly with a series of high value prizes for engineering “bake-offs”

Investment to date only about $4 million.

what is to be done
What is to be Done?

Ramp R&D funding levels up towards $10 billion/yr to support series of highly rewarded engineering “bake-offs”.

Contrast with national Amtrak subsidy (>$1 billion), the “Freedom Car” ($1.5 billion), Maglev ($2.0 billion), and NASA ($10 billion).

what is to be done110
What is to be Done?

Ramp R&D funding levels up towards $10 billion/yr to support series of highly rewarded engineering “bake-offs”.

Contrast with national Amtrak subsidy (>$1 billion), the “Freedom Car” ($1.5 billion), Maglev ($2.0 billion), and NASA ($10 billion).

Presidential commitment comparable to Kennedy’s goal of a “Man on the Moon” to design and build the first system on Oahu.

slide111
- OR -
  • New private company with mission to develop guideway and vehicle designs
  • Returns on investment expected in 5 – 15 years
  • ROI to be negotiated with eventual clients, many of which could also be investors
timetable
Timetable
  • About 10 years for series of design competitions and prototypingincluding first major build in Hawaii.
  • About 10 years to construct functional coast-to-coast network
  • Nice target date? 2025: The bicentennial of George Stephenson’s first passenger train (1825).
a possible timeline

Mandated TCAS for cars($100 retrofit)2013 First sale of platoonable cars & mini-buses2015 First metropolitan guideway

  • First restrictions placed on old cars in CBDs.
  • 2025 Completion of first coast-to-coast guideway
  • 2025 Fully self-driving “traxis”
  • Last Amtrak train runs for bicentennial
  • 2030 First subway upgrade
  • 2035 Part of rail network extended to highways and traveled by dual-mode trucks for heavy goods
  • 2040 Begin conversion of one or both directions of Interstates to bike lanes and park land

A Possible Timeline

a more detailed us timeline

2005 e-Guideway (EG) cost-benefit analysis funded by Congress

2006 IEEE 802.11p standard established for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

2007 EG cost-benefit analysis completed

2008 Standard for Very Close Following (VCF) Vehicles

1st EG design competition

2009 TCAS available in new cars and with retrofit kits

2010 1st international EG design competition

2011 TCAS mandated

Introduction of VCF vehicles and lanes in cities

2012 2nd international EG competition features theme park prototypes

2014 EG design selected and placed in the public domain

2016 First EG arterial construction begins

2017 50% of major cities’ downtown traffic uses VCF

2020 First major intercity EG arterials completed

2025 “Interstate H” paralleling I-5, I-95, I-80 completed

Last Amtrak train runs on 200th Anniversary of Stephenson’s first

2030 Replacement of subway tracks by EG underway

A More Detailed US Timeline

further details

FURTHER DETAILS

The following slides should be refined and included in supporting presentation(s).

slide117

Guideway interchanges at downtown avenues will present challenges because of the small spaces available and the high speeds required to maintain throughput on the guideways.

slide119

100 MPH

>500 cars per minute

rotary physics
Rotary Physics

assume 2.25g maximum force

a = v2 / r

100 mph = 160000 meters/hr = 40 m/sec

20 = 1600 / r => r = 80m

Diameter = 160m (2 city blocks!)

rotary physics122
Rotary Physics

If r = 8m instead of 80m

max v = 100mph/sq. root(10)=> max v only 30mph on typical avenue rotary

e guideway kinematics
e-Guideway Kinematics

Animation showing computer negotiated merging onto high speed guideways from street and crossing guideways.

slide124

Rotary Capacity

Diameter = 16 m

2g speed =30 MPH

< 15% of traffic may use a rotary if used for left turns only

Edges of the roadway

16m

slide125

RIGHT TURN RAMP

Diameter = 32 m

2g speed = 42 MPH

< 40% of traffic may turn right

slide127

100MPH; >500 cars per min

LEFT TURN RAMPDiameter = 64 m2g speed = 60 MPH< 57% of traffic may turn left

length of ramps
Length of Ramps?

Assumptions: 30HP continuous; 60HP pulse; 800lb car

60HP => 45KW => 45K joules/sec

800lb = 0.45 * 800 = 360 kg car

kinetic energy = ½ m v2 = 180 * 402 = 288KJ

288/45 = 6.4 sec

d = 3.2 * 40 = 128m, less than 2 city blocks

Or at 2g, 40m

what happens to the cars that come off the ramps
What Happens to the Cars that Come Off the Ramps?

If 10% of guideway traffic exits

=> up to 50 cars/minute

what happens to the cars that come off the ramps130
What Happens to the Cars that Come Off the Ramps?

If 10% of guideway traffic exits

=> up to 50 cars/minute

Q: What is the throughput of a city street?

what happens to the cars that come off the ramps131
What Happens to the Cars that Come Off the Ramps?

If 10% of guideway traffic exits

=> up to 50 cars/minute

Q: What is the throughput of a city street?

A: About 15 cars/minute/lane, or 30 cars/minute each way on an avenue

what happens to the cars that come off the ramps132
What Happens to the Cars that Come Off the Ramps?

If 10% of guideway traffic exits

=> up to 50 cars/minute

Q: What is the throughput of a city street?

A: About 15 cars/minute/lane, or 30 cars/minute each way on an avenue

Cars will jam exit and entrance ramps unless limited to about 5% of max. flow or 25 cars/minute

can a 6 lane avenue support 50 platooning vehicles direction min exiting guideway
Can a 6 lane avenue support 50 platooning vehicles/direction/min exiting guideway?

ASSUMPTIONSAverage length of car: Cl = 2.7mHeadway within platoon: Ch = .3mMax number cars in platoon: Pn = 6 cars Headway between platoons: Ph =1 secondLanes available: 1Right-of-way fraction: G = 30%

what avenue speed limit would support 50 exiting vehicles direction minute if cars platooned
What avenue speed limit would support 50 exiting vehicles/direction/ minute if cars platooned?

Tc = (Cl+Ch) / v + Ph/Pn

1.2 = 3 / v + 0.17

  • = 3 / v

v = 3 meters/second = 7 MPH

… if there were no traffic lights!

If 30% green light time,

average speed between lights = 7 / 0.3 = 22 MPH

Allowing for acceleration/braking,

speed limit would be 30 MPH

how much could cbd speed limits be lowered if cars platooned
How much could CBD speed limits be lowered if cars platooned?

Tc = (Cl+Ch) / v + Ph/Pn

2 = 3 / v + 0.17

2 = 3 / v

v = 1.5 meters/second

= 3 MPH without intersections

If 50% green light time and one-way streets,

average speed between lights = 3 / 0.5 = 6 MPH

Allowing for acceleration/braking and

jaywalkers, speed limit could be 10 MPH