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  1. NOTICE  These slides are provided to augment the lectures presented in Dr. Hatley’s History 2493-US Since 1877 course. If you miss class, you should not assume that merely perusing these will provide you with sufficient information to do well on examinations.

  2. Aftermath of the Spanish-American War (1898) The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning. ―US Senator Henry Cabot Lodge

  3. Philippine Islands • William McKinley decided to keep the Philippines, “in order to uplift and civilize, and Christianize” the Filipinos • US acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam and paid Spain $20,000,000.

  4. Philippine War or Insurrection (1899-1902) • Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) • Guerrilla warfare • 4,374 Americans died

  5. Cuba • Platt Amendment (1901) • Created an independent Cuban government • Cuba forbidden to incur debts that it could not pay • Cuba could not make treaties with other countries that could undermine its independence

  6. Cuba US would lease a 28,000 acre Naval base at Guantánamo, Bay

  7. Cuba • US could intervene to protect Cuban independence • US acquired other possessions in the Pacific

  8. The US Becomes a World Power • Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914) • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 (1890)

  9. The US Becomes a World Power The United States became a major player in world affairs and increasingly involved in Latin America

  10. China • Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) • Formosa (Taiwan) • “spheres of influence” • US had its own interests in China: • railroad investment

  11. China • Fear of growing Japanese influence • American emotional investment

  12. China • Secretary of State John M. Hay • Initiated the “Open Door Policy”

  13. China • Peking (Beijing) • Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900)

  14. China • The Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists • Boxers were anti-foreign and anti-Christian

  15. China Farthing family, English missionaries murdered by Boxers (1900)

  16. China Peking in 1900

  17. US troops enter the Forbidden City (1900)

  18. PeaceProtocol ofPeking (1900)

  19. China • China had to pay the coalition nations $333,000,000 in reparations (Russia got most of it). • Most of the US share, $25,000,000, was later returned to China with the understanding that it be used to educate Chinese students in the US

  20. The Panama Canal • Isthmian canal • Why a Canal? • trade stimulus • Strategic concerns (naval and military)

  21. The Panama Canal Battleship USS Oregon made the two-month and 14,000-mile voyage from Bremerton, Washington to Cuba (1898)

  22. The Panama Canal • Three obstacles to US acquisition of an isthmian canal: • La belle France

  23. The Panama Canal • Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894) • Suez Canal (1859-1869)

  24. The Panama Canal French were hampered by: cholera, diphtheria, malaria, small pox, tuberculosis, and yellow fever; over 20,000 French died ants antiquated equipment poor financing

  25. The Panama Canal • Great Britain • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)

  26. The Panama Canal • Neither nation would gain exclusive rights from Colombia to build a canal; mutual control • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) • equal passage for all nations

  27. The Panama Canal • Colombia • Panama was a reluctant provincia of Colombia

  28. The Panama Canal • Hay-Herrán Treaty (1903) • Strip of land six miles wide • $10,000,000 in gold up front • $250,000 annual rental fee • Colombian Senate demanded $25,000,000

  29. The Panama Canal With US support, Panamanians revolted on 3 November 1903

  30. The Panama Canal Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero (1833-1909) (1904-1908)

  31. The Panama Canal República de PanamáHay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)

  32. The Panama Canal The treaty was the same as that offered Colombia, except that the US got a strip of land ten miles wide

  33. The Panama Canal • $10,000,000 up front • $250,000 annual rental fee (annuity) • Opened 14 August 1914

  34. The Panama Canal Tremendous economic boom for Panama Carter-Torrijos Treaty (1978) Canal would come under Panamanian control at noon on 31 December 1999

  35. Mexico Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915) (r.1876-1911)

  36. Mexico Francisco Madero (1873-1913) (r.1911-1913)

  37. Mexico General Victoriano Huerta (1854-1916) (r.1913-1914)

  38. Mexico US President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) (1913-1921)

  39. Mexico Venustiano Carranza (Constitutionalist) (1859-1920) (1915-1920)

  40. Tampico Incident (1914) USS Dolphin

  41. Tampico (1914)

  42. Mexico US troops invaded and blockaded Veracruz, Mexico’s principal port city

  43. US troops enter Veracruz (April 1914)

  44. Mexico • Francisco “Pancho” Villa (Doroteo Arango) (1878?-1923) • Commanded the Division del Norte

  45. Mexico Villa removed sixteen American mining engineers from a train at Santa Isabel and executed them (January 1916)

  46. Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and killed fourteen US soldiers and ten civilians (March 1916)

  47. Mexico • The Punitive Expedition • BG John Joseph Pershing (1860-1948)

  48. Mexico First Lieutenant George S. Patton Jr. (1885-1945) Patton while a cadet at West Point

  49. 12,000 US soldiers entered Mexico to find Villa (March 1916)

  50. Santa Maria River near Valle (1916)