Gender and Sports: Does Equity Require Ideological Changes?. What is sex? . The biological characteristics of maleness of femaleness. Three biological characteristics can be used to identify a person’s sex. Physical Appearance
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Does Equity Require Ideological Changes?
The biological characteristics of maleness of femaleness.
What attributes do people use to identify someone's sex?
Participation by girls & women has increased dramatically since the early 1980s due to:
Title IX requires compliance with one of these three tests:
Access to facilities (5-7)
Quality of facilities
Availability of scholarships
Program operating expenses
Scheduling of games & practice times
Travel and per diem expenses
Number of coaches
Salaries for all staff and administrators
Medical training services and facilities
Publicity for players, teams, and eventsTitle IX Categories of Support for Athletes:
The Two-Gender Classification System Representation
Sport participation can empower women
Gender equity also is a men’s issue:
Gender ideology is crucial because:
Based on a
Two-category Classification System
What would happen if:
There is a need for
Race and Ethnicity: Ideology
Are They Important in Sports?
Refers to a socially identified collection of people who
Racial Categories: Ideology
Drawing Lines in Society
Continuous Traits=skin color, height, brain size, nose width, leg length, leg length ratio, # of fast twitch muscle fibers, etc.
Discrete Traits =blood type, sickle cell trait, etc.
Racial category lines can be drawn anywhere and everywhere!We could draw 2 or 2000; the decision is a social one, not a biological one. Some people draw many; others draw few.
CA = Caucasian
BL = Black
IN = Indian
ASIAN = Asian
Racial classification systems were developed as Caucasian Europeans explored and colonized the globe
Race logic encourages people to
Achievements of Black Athletes are due to:
Natural physical abilitiesTraditional Race LogicUsed in Sports
Why is the search misleading?
Race logic + discrimination + sport opportunities
Beliefs about biological & cultural destiny
Motivation to develop skills
The facts show that
Changes are most likely when
Changes are most likely when
In Euro-American history there has been
THEREFORE, the black male body =
valuable entertainment commodity
Sports and the Media:
Could They Survive Without Each Other?
Media content is always edited and “re-presented” by those who control them
Editing decisions are based on one or more of these goals:
The media often serve the interests of those with power and wealth in society
As corporate control of media has increased & become more concentrated, media content emphasizes
as natural and necessary in society
Research is needed to help answer questions such as:
This is not likely because
Global economic factors have intensified the sport-media relationship because transnational corporations have needed vehicles for developing
Media coverage is constructed around specific themes and messages:
Research shows that
Work behind scenes
Low salaries; paid by publications
Low regulation by sport management
Job focuses on providing information
High salaries; often paid by management
Comments regulated by management
Job focuses on “selling” the sportComparison of Sportswriters and Announcers
Sports in High School and College:
Do Varsity Sport Programs
Contribute to Education?
Arguments For: Ideology
Involve students in activities
Enhance fitness and lifetime participation
Generate spirit and unity
Develop and reward valued skills
Distract attention from academics
Increase passivity and injuries
Create superficial and transitory spirit
Create pressure and distort status systemArguments For and Against Interscholastic Sports
Data on this issue are scarce; research is need on the following:
Intercollegiate sports are not all the same