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GENDER EQUITY. Based in part on How Schools Shortchange Girls . American Association of University Women. Clarifying “ Equity ”. Equity does not mean, “ We all get the same treatment. ” This would often be unfair and unreasonable. Special needs at all levels must be addressed.

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gender equity
GENDER EQUITY

Based in part on How Schools Shortchange Girls.

American Association of University Women

clarifying equity
Clarifying “Equity”
  • Equity does not mean, “We all get the same treatment.”
    • This would often be unfair and unreasonable.
    • Special needs at all levels must be addressed.
  • Equity means, “I get what I need.”
teacher student interactions
Teacher-Student Interactions
  • males receive more attention than do females
    • boys call out answers 8X more frequently than girls
    • when girls call out, they are often told to raise their hands
    • boys assist in 79% of lecture demonstration in one study
  • even when boys do not volunteer answers, teachers are more likely to call on boys
  • teacher comments (praise, acceptance, remediation, and criticism):
    • boys receive more of all types of comments
    • boys receive more of the constructive form of comments (praise, remediation, and criticism)
gender linked psychological differences
Gender-Linked Psychological Differences
  • from these forms of interaction, girls come to show “learned helplessness”
  • girls are more likely to attribute their success to luck, whereas boys are more likely to attribute their success to ability
  • boys are more likely to feel mastery, whereas girls are more likely to feel helplessness
  • girls have higher expectations of failure and lower self-confidence when faced with a new situation, and are more likely to abandon academic tasks
slide5
boys and girls view academic failure differently:
    • boys often attribute their failures to lack of trying and feel that more effort is needed to be successful
    • girls are more likely to attribute their failures to lack of ability
  • boys tend to be more competitive; girls are more cooperative in their learning
  • girls tend to be more indirect, often relying on questions whereas males are more likely to make declarative statements
  • girls will help boys at their request, but boys tend not to reciprocate
  • cooperative learning can be tipped in favor of boys because of this “social dominance” suggesting that same-sex groups may be a better thing to do from time to time
slide6
girls are initially more uncomfortable with group lab work than boys
  • girls tend to perceive science as a masculine phenomenon
  • girls tend to perceive science as lacking a human element and frequently show less interest
  • girls generally will not initiate a mandated discussion in a mixed-gender group
  • girls frequently give more reasoned responses due to delay in responding
  • successful female students see themselves as more hard working, less reckless and rash, and more oriented toward the future
design of classroom activities
Design of Classroom Activities
  • teachers tend to choose those forms of classroom activities that favor males
    • in lectures, teachers respond to males at nearly 2X the rate they respond to females
    • in labs, teachers tend to respond to both at equal rates
    • lectures tend to dominate in many classrooms thereby giving an unfair advantage to males
    • course work and grading are sometimes competitive
    • female traits of cooperation are not often valued
  • lab work, discussion, and cooperative learning tend to level the playing field
teaching considerations
Teaching Considerations
  • Use more than one textbook -- added content about successful women scientists
  • Eliminate sexist language and examples (e.g., always using “male” examples such as cars, guns)
  • Show fairness in treatment.
  • Show equal expectations for the sexes.
  • Less competition, more cooperation, raise hands.
  • Show equality in choosing leaders, demonstration assistants, and assigning tasks.
  • Consider the fact that girls may have course work deficits.
harassment misconduct i
Harassment/Misconduct - I
  • Studies have shown that boys tend to treat girls badly -- often crossing over into the legal area of sexual harassment (Title IX)
  • Gender-biased interactions must not be allowed to happen in school
    • boys “rating” girls
    • verbal abuse
    • physical abuse
  • School systems as well as individuals can be held accountable if a teacher fails to act.
harassment misconduct ii
Harassment/Misconduct - II
  • Should a teacher ignore sexist, racist, homophobic, and violent interactions between students, they give tacit approval.
  • Teachers need not accept various life styles, but they must be tolerant.
  • The “system” is unforgiving of teachers who are involved in sexual harassment or legal misconduct.
the test for sexual harassment
The Test for Sexual Harassment
  • Attorneys appear to agree that the test for sexual harassment includes the following factors:
    • perseverance
    • severity
    • unwelcome nature
  • Schools ought to have codes of conduct -- know the code and enforce it.
equity resources
Equity Resources
  • See How Schools Shortchange Girls Executive Report at: http://www.aauw.org/research/hssg.pdf
  • See also the following URLs:
    • http://equity.enc.org/
    • http://www.academic.org
  • Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education at http://www.goenc.com/