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EE562 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR ENGINEERS. Lecture 9, 5/4/2005 University of Washington, Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2005 Instructor: Professor Jeff A. Bilmes. Game Playing & Adversarial Search. Material. Reading: Read chapters 6 Read chapter 7 (for Monday).

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ee562 artificial intelligence for engineers


Lecture 9, 5/4/2005

University of Washington,

Department of Electrical Engineering

Spring 2005

Instructor: Professor Jeff A. Bilmes


  • Reading: Read chapters 6
  • Read chapter 7 (for Monday).
    • expect new homework on Monday (this will be a long one).
  • Today’s lecture covers chapter 6.
  • Announcements: Still working on makeup class times. Send me email if you haven’t already for Friday schedules.


  • Optimal decisions
  • α-β pruning
  • Imperfect, real-time decisions


games vs search problems
Games vs. search problems
  • "Unpredictable" opponent  solution is a strategy specifying a move for every possible opponent reply
  • Time limits  unlikely to find goal, must approximate
  • History:
    • Computer considers possible lines of play (Babbage, 1846)
    • Algorithm for perfect play (Zermelo, 1912; Von Neumann, 1944)
    • Finite horizon, approximate evaluation (Zuse, 1945; Wiener, 1948; Shannon, 1950)
    • First Chess Program (Turing, 1951)
    • Machine learning to improve evaluation accuracy (Samuel, 1952-57)
    • Pruning to allow deeper search (McCarthy, 1956)


  • Perfect play for deterministic games
  • Idea: choose move to position with highest minimax value = best achievable payoff against best play
  • E.g., 2-ply game (ply == move by one player):


properties of minimax
Properties of minimax
  • Complete? Yes, if tree is finite. Finite strategy can exist even if tree is infinite.
  • Optimal? Yes (against an optimal opponent).
    • for sub-optimal opponent, better strategies might exist.
  • Time complexity? O(bm)
  • Space complexity? O(bm) (depth-first exploration)
    • For chess, b ≈ 35, m ≈100 for "reasonable" games exact solution completely infeasible.
  • But do we need to explore every path?


why is it called
α is the value of the best (i.e., highest-value) choice found so far at any choice point along the path for max

If v is worse than α, max will avoid it

 prune that branch

Define β similarly for min

Why is it called α-β?


properties of
Properties of α-β
  • Pruning does not affect final result
  • Good move ordering improves effectiveness of pruning
  • With "perfect ordering," time complexity = O(bm/2)

doubles the solvable tractable depth of search

  • A simple example of the value of reasoning about which computations are relevant (a form of metareasoning)
  • For chess, 3550 is still impossible!


resource limits
Resource limits

Standard approach:

  • cutoff test: use a cutoff-test rather than a terminal-test.

e.g., depth limit (perhaps add quiescence search)

quiescence == stop when nothing is going to make drastic changes (e.g., taking a queen)

  • evaluation function: use Eval instead of Utility

= eval estimates desirability of position (but is a heuristic, since the exact true evaluation requires a full search)

Suppose we have 100 secs to move, can explore 104 nodes/sec106nodes per move ¼ 358/2

 - reaches depth 8, relatively good chess program


evaluation functions
Evaluation functions
  • For chess, typically linear weighted sum of features Eval(s) = w1 f1(s) + w2 f2(s) + … + wn fn(s)

e.g., w1 = 9 with

f1(s) = (number of white queens) – (number of black queens), etc.


exact values don t matter
Exact values don’t’ matter

Behavior is preserved under any monotonic transformation of Eval function.

Only the order matters: payoff in deterministic games acts as an ordinal utility function (in game theory)


cutting off search
Cutting off search

MinimaxCutoff is identical to MinimaxValue except

  • Terminal? is replaced by Cutoff?
  • Utility is replaced by Eval

Does it work in practice?

bm = 106, b=35  m=4

4-ply lookahead is a hopeless chess player!

  • 4-ply ≈ human novice
  • 8-ply ≈ typical PC, human master
  • 12-ply ≈ Deep Blue, Kasparov


deterministic games in practice
Deterministic games in practice
  • Checkers: Chinook ended 40-year-reign of human world champion Marion Tinsley in 1994. Used a precomputed endgame database defining perfect play for all positions involving 8 or fewer pieces on the board, a total of 444 billion positions.
  • Chess: Deep Blue defeated human world champion Garry Kasparov in a six-game match in 1997. Deep Blue searches 200 million positions per second, uses very sophisticated evaluation, and undisclosed methods for extending some lines of search up to 40 ply.
  • Othello: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too good.
  • Go: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too bad. In go, b > 300, so most programs use pattern knowledge bases to suggest plausible moves.


non deterministic games in general
Non-Deterministic games in general
  • In nondeterministic games, chance is introduced by dice, card-shuffling, or coin flipping. In these cases, we have search nodes for “chance” which can be seen as a random player in the game. In the coin case:


algorithm for non deterministic games
Algorithm for non-deterministic games
  • Expectedminimax gives perfect play
  • Just like Minimax, except we also handle chance nodes.


non deterministic games in practice
non-deterministic games in practice
  • Dice rolls increase b: 21 possible rolls with 2 dice
  • Backgammon ¼ 20 legal moves (can be 6000 with 1-1 roll).
    • depth 4 = 20(21*20)3¼ 1.2 £ 109
  • As depth increases, probability of reaching given node shrinks  value of lookahead is diminished
  • - pruning much less effective.
  • TDGammon: uses depth-2 search + very good Eval (learned automatically), world champion level


exact values do matter
Exact values DO matter.
  • Behavor is preserved only by positive linear transformation of Eval
  • Hence, Eval should be proportional to expected payoff.


  • Games are fun to work on!
  • They illustrate several important points about AI
  • perfection is unattainable  must approximate
  • good idea to think about what to think about