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Ergonomics. Industrial. Session Objectives. You will be able to: Understand the principles of ergonomics Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs

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ergonomics

Ergonomics

Industrial

session objectives
Session Objectives
  • You will be able to:
    • Understand the principles of ergonomics
    • Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)
    • Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs
    • Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk
what is ergonomics
What Is Ergonomics?
  • Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people
  • Reduce MSDs
    • Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment
  • Engineering controls
  • Safe work practices
  • PPE
musculoskeletal disorder msd injuries
Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries
  • 1.8 million MSD injuries each year
  • 600,000 MSD injuries require time away from work
osha regulation of ergonomics
OSHA Regulation of Ergonomics
  • General Duty Clause
  • Applies to unregulated hazards
    • Failure to keep a hazard-free workplace
    • Hazard recognized by employer or employer’s industry
    • Hazard could cause death or serious harm
    • Method existed to correct the hazard exists
what are msds
What Are MSDs?
  • Injuries to:
    • Muscles
    • Nerves
    • Tendons—tendinitis
    • Ligaments
    • Joints
    • Spinal discs

Image Credit: National Institutes of Health/NIAMS

msd characteristics
MSD Characteristics
  • Occur from a single event or many small injuries
  • Take weeks, months, or years to develop
  • Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after permanent injury has occurred
  • Contributing causes may occur at home and at work
  • Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task
general signs of msds
General Signs of MSDs
  • Less strength for gripping
  • Less range of motion
  • Loss of muscle function
  • Inability to do everyday tasks
msd symptoms
MSD Symptoms
  • Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness
  • Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility
  • Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness
  • Elbow and knee joints—pain, swelling, stiffness
msd symptoms cont
MSD Symptoms (cont.)
  • Hands and wrists— swelling, numb, loss of strength
  • Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling
  • Thumbs—pain at the base
  • Feet and toes—numb, stiff, burning sensation
outward signs of msds
Outward Signs of MSDs
  • Swelling or inflammation of joints
  • Vigorously shaking hands
  • Massaging hands, wrists, or arms
  • Cradling arms
  • Limping
  • Stiff back
common msds
Common MSDs
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Low back pain
  • Eye strain
  • tendinitis
  • Trigger finger
common msds cont
Common MSDs (cont.)
  • De Quervain’s disease—forceful grip
  • Carpet layer’s knee—contact trauma
  • Rotator cuff tendinitis— repetitive motion
  • Herniated disc— bending and twisting
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon—excess vibration
act on the signs of msd
Act on the Signs of MSD
  • Act immediately:
    • Report the problem
    • Seek medical attention
    • Early treatment and intervention can prevent permanent injury
msds any questions
MSDs—Any Questions?
  • Any questions about MSDs?
  • Any questions about their signs and symptoms?
risk factors that lead to msds
Risk Factors that Lead to MSDs
  • Repetitive motions
  • Forceful exertions
  • Awkward postures
  • Contact stress (pressure points)
  • Vibrations
risk factor repetitive motion
Risk Factor—Repetitive Motion
  • Stress on muscles and tendons
  • Contributing factors
    • Duration and speed of repetitious movement
    • Number of musclesinvolved
    • Required force
  • Raising and lowering the arm over and over again
forceful exertions
Forceful Exertions
  • Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints
  • Contributing factors
    • Type of grip
    • Weight of object
    • Body posture
    • Type and duration of the task
  • Repeatedly turning a screwdriver while pushing at the same time

Image Credit: OSHA

awkward postures
Awkward Postures
  • Stress on muscles and tendons
  • Contributing factors
    • Reaching overhead
    • Force the body must maintain to hold the position
    • Holding fixed positions (static loading)
  • Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning
contact stress
Contact Stress
  • Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels
  • Contributing factors
    • Repetition
    • Duration of contact
    • Grip strength required
  • Wresting wrists on the keyboard while typing
vibration
Vibration
  • Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves
  • Contributing factors
    • Prolonged grip
    • Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers
    • Tools without vibration dampening device
    • Poor power tool maintenance
  • Prolonged use of a grinder
msds related to risk factors
MSDs Related to Risk Factors
  • DeQuervain’s Disease—forceful grip
  • Trigger Finger—contact stress
  • Rotator Cuff Syndrome—repetition
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome—posture
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome—vibration
msd risk factors
MSD Risk Factors
  • Any questions about risk factors?
  • MSD hazards?
ergonomics management
Ergonomics Management
  • Job assessment
  • MSD reporting and response system
  • Designated coordinator
  • MSD intervention and control system
  • Training
  • Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs
identifying and controlling msd hazards
Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards
  • Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk
  • Devise a control strategy with your input
  • Implement control measures
  • Training
control methods
Control Methods
  • Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools
  • Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks
  • Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD
how to protect yourself
How to Protect Yourself
  • Change positions often, take stretch breaks
  • Maintain neutral posture whenever possible
  • Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors
  • Use material handling aids
  • Report MSD symptoms
report msds
Report MSDs
  • Immediately report MSD signs and symptoms
  • Report MSD hazards
msd prevention and control
MSD Prevention and Control
  • Any questions about the methods to manage, prevent, and control MSDs?
key points to remember
Key Points to Remember
  • Recognize MSD signs and symptoms
  • Understand MSD hazards
  • Take steps to control MSD hazards
  • Report MSDs
  • Participate in the Ergonomics Program