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Ergonomics. Definition. “Ergon” = Work “nomics” = Study of The applied science of equipment design intended to maximize productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort. . Scope of Ergonomic Injuries.

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  1. Ergonomics

  2. Definition “Ergon” = Work “nomics” = Study of The applied science of equipment design intended to maximize productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort.

  3. Scope of Ergonomic Injuries • Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are health disorders arising from repeated biomechanical stress to the hands, wrist, elbows, shoulders, neck, back • Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affect soft tissue of the body in areas like the neck, back, shoulder, elbow, hand, wrist, and fingers. These include nerves, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, and muscles.

  4. Goals of Ergonomics in the Workplace • Reduce the risk of CTD • Increase productivity • Increase safety • Improve quality of work • Decrease fatigue and errors

  5. Cumulative Trauma Disorders - Statistics • Approximately 24% of all workplace injuries are back injuries. • Back injuries cost US Business $36 Billion per year.

  6. Cumulative Trauma Disorders 100% Fatigue Discomfort Pain Performance Injury Time

  7. Most Common CTD • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Low Back Pain

  8. Risk Factors • Force: the amount of physical effort required to maintain control of equipment or tools, or to perform a task such as heavy lifting, pushing, pulling, or carrying • Repetition: performing the same motion or series of motions continually or frequently for an extended period of time with little variation such as prolonged typing, assembling components, and repetitive hand tool usage

  9. Risk Factors cont. • Awkward postures: refers to positions of the body that significantly deviate from the neutral position while performing job tasks such as working over-head, extended reaching, twisting, squatting, or kneeling • Static postures: refer to holding a fixed position or posture such as gripping tools that can’t be set down, standing in one place for prolonged periods

  10. Risk Factors cont. • Contact stress: results from occasional, repeated, or continuous contact between sensitive body tissues and hard or sharp objects like resting the wrist on the edge of a desk, or tool handles pressing into the palms

  11. Age-Related Changes • Reaction time lengthens • Workload capacity decreases • Temperature related discomfort increases • Visual capabilities decrease

  12. Hand Force A power grip can be 5 times stronger than a pinch grip Takes 4.6 lbs. of force = 2 lbs. 10 lbs.

  13. Wrist Bent Extension Ulnar deviation Flexion

  14. Tool Use Working with bent wrists decreases grip strength Handles get smaller, but hand does not Use tools that let you keep your wrist straight

  15. Frequent, Awkward, or Heavy Lifting

  16. Repetitive Motion

  17. Awkward Positions

  18. Back Bent More Than 30 Degrees

  19. Shortened muscles compress nerve Neck Bent More Than 30 degrees

  20. Hands Over Head or Elbows Above Shoulders

  21. Recent History • MSDs represent over half of all rated military disabilities and over one third of all reported civilian injuries and illnesses within the Marine Corps • In recent years there has been an increase in reporting MSDs for Marine Corps personnel which can be attributed to • Changes in work processes and work center risks • Advanced information technology and training have increased awareness

  22. Management Commitment and Personnel Involvement • A partnership between all working levels is essential to prevent MSDs and reduce the risk in all workplaces • Management commitment provide the organizational resources and motivation to implement a strong ergo program • Personnel involvement is essential for identifying risks and developing effective abatement plans

  23. Hazard Prevention and Control • Eliminate, reduce, or control the presence of risk factors • Engineering controls • Administrative controls • PPE • DoD doesn’t recognize back belts as or wrist splints as PPE… they are considered medical appliances

  24. Engineering Controls • Engineering controls or techniques are the preferred mechanism for controlling ergonomic hazards • This may entail redesigning the work station, work methods, and tools to reduce the demands of the job, such as exertion, repetition, and awkward positions

  25. Controls Rotating personnel to jobs with dissimilar physical requirements Establishing work/rest schedules Training personnel to use appropriate work methods when engineering controls are not feasible Administrative Controls

  26. Work Station Design • Workstations must be easily adjustable to accommodate the worker performing the task

  27. Training • Training should enable each person to recognize risk factors and understand procedures used to minimize the risks • Refresher training should be provided annually and retraining should be done when personnel are assigned to a new job with different risks, or new risks are discovered

  28. Back Injury Training • Anatomy and physiology to explain how the back works • Biomechanics of lifting • Weight control • How to avoid back injuries • Physical fitness

  29. Other methods to reduce the potential of back injury.

  30. Standing Posture • Keep your spinal column aligned in its natural curves • Prop one foot up on a stool to reduce stress in your lower back

  31. Shift and Stretch • Shift your posture often • Stretch frequently throughout the day • Keep your body flexible (not rigid or fixed) • Don’t force your body to conform to its workspace

  32. Push not Pull • Can you slide it instead of lifting it ?

  33. Use Lifting Devices • Use proper equipment • Hand trucks • Forklifts • Dollies • Use gloves if needed

  34. Stretch and be Ready • Have you stretched your muscles or warmed up before lifting • Are you wearing slip resistant shoes • Have you cleared a pathway before you move the item

  35. Lift With Your Legs • Plant your feet firmly - get a stable base • Bend at your knees - not your waist • Tighten your abdominal muscles to • support your spine • Get a good grip - use both hands • Keep the load close to your body • Use your leg muscles as you lift • Keep your back upright, keep it in its natural posture • Lift steadily and smoothly without jerking

  36. Supervisors Responsibilities • Supervisors shall receive sufficient training on ergo issues to effectively carry out their responsibilities • Ensure personnel receive training • Request assistance for managing risk factors


  38. UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS MARINE CORPS COMMUNITY SERVICES Certificate of Training This is to certify that Type name here HAS SATISFACTORILY COMPLETED Ergonomics Online Training at Camp Pendleton, California Type date here Type here Employee ID # Date

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