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Argentina. República Argentina. Geography. Capital is Buenos Aires Second biggest country in South America and eighth largest in the world Area- 1,078,000  sq  mi between the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east and south.

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República Argentina

  • Capital is Buenos Aires
  • Second biggest country in South America and eighth largest in the world
  • Area- 1,078,000 sq mi between the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east and south.
  • bordered by Paraguay and Bolivia in the north, Brazil and Uruguay in the northeast, and Chile in the west and south
  • divided into twenty-three provinces
  • Aconcagua (22,834 feet), is the highest mountain in the Americas, the Southern and Western Hemisphere
  • lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz (−344 ft) below sea level- lowest point in South America
four main regions
Four Main Regions
  • fertile plains of the Pampas in the center of the country, the source of agricultural wealth
  • oil-rich plateau of Patagonia in the southern half
  • subtropical flats of the Gran Chaco in the north
  • Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile
  • Temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south
  • North- very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, periodic droughts
  • Central region- hot summers with thunderstorms (hail), and cool winters
  • South- warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall (especially in mountains)
  • Ceibo- national flower
  • North- subtropical plants
  • Pampa- few plants; ombú, an evergreen
  • Northwest-cacti
  • mammels- jaguar, cougar, ocelot, howler monkey, tapir, capybara, anteater, ferret, raccoon
  • Birds- hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, parrots, hornero (national bird)
  • Sea life- dolphins, orcas,whales
  • Snakes- boa constrictors, yacará pit viper, South American rattle snake
  • Reptiles, etc- Crocodiles, turtles
  • 1480- the Inca Empire (Emperor Pachacutec) launched an offensive and conquered northwestern Argentina
    • Collasuyu
  • In the northeast, the Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca and sweet potato
  • Central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia)- nomads
history spain
History: Spain
  • 1516- first Spanish conquistadors discovered the Río de la Plata
  • named the estuary Mar Dulce (fresh water sea)
  • Natives gave gifts of silver to the survivors of the shipwrecked expedition (led by Juan Díaz de Solís
  • Established colony in Buenos Aires area
  • RuyDíaz de Guzmán named the territory Tierra Argentina (Land of Silver)
    • latin word for silver-- argentums
history independence
History: Independence
  • Spanish immigrants and their descendants (criollos)
  • Afro-Argentines(descendents of slaves)
  • Indigenous peoples
  • May 25, 1810, after the overthrow of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon, citizens of Buenos Aires created the First Government Junta (May Revolution)
  • Formal independence from Spain was declared on July 9, 1816
history self rule
History: Self-Rule
  • 1817- General José de San Martín crossed the Andes to free Chile and Peru, eliminating the Spanish threat
  • Centralist and federalist groups were in conflict until national unity was established and the constitution written (1853)
  • 1880-1945: prosperity and prominence
    • became one of the 10 richest countries in the world
  • Conservatives dominated until 1916, when the Radicals won control of the government
  • The military forced Radicals from power in 1930, leading to another decade of Conservative rule
history juan per n
History: Juan Perón
  • Political change led to the presidency of Juan Perón in 1946
    • working class- unionized workers
    • Eva Perón
  • Lost presidency during RevoluciónLibertadora of 1955
  • 1950s-1970s: govt. changed often
  • economy grew strongly and poverty declined
  • political violence continued
  • 1973- Perón returned to the presidency, but he died within a year of assuming power
    • his wife Isabel, the Vice President, succeeded him in office, but a military coup in 1976 removed her from office
history the dirty war
History: The Dirty War
  • 1976-1983: armed forces took power through a junta (National Reorganization Process)
  • military government repressed opposition and leftist groups using harsh illegal measures
  • thousands of dissidents disappeared
  • greatly increased the national debt
  • economic problems, corruption, public revulsion, human rights abuses
  • 1982- defeat by the British in the Falklands War
history democracy
History: Democracy
  • Democracy was restored in 1983
  • Raúl Alfonsín- Radical government
    • Prosecuted leaders of junta
    • Attempted to resolve the issue of the “disappeared”
    • Failure to turn around the economic depression and debt
  • En unión y libertad
  • Federal Presidential Representative Democratic Republic
  • President - both head of state and head of government
    • Néstor Kirchner 
separation of powers
Separation of Powers
  • Executivepower resides in the President and his cabinet
    • President and Vice President are directly elected to four-year terms, limited to two consecutive terms, and the cabinet ministers are appointed by the president
  • Legislative power is given to a bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Nación), consisting of a Senate (Senado) of seventy-two seats, and a Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) of 257 members
    • A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women
  • Argentine Supreme Court of Justice- seven members who are appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate
international affairs
International Affairs
  • The only country from Latin America to participate in the Gulf War under mandate of the UN
  • Anti-U.S. protests, emphasizing Mercosur (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) as its first international priority
  • Armed forces are controlled by the Defense Ministry
    • President is Commander-in-Chief
    • one of the best equipped in the region
    • Army, Navy, and Air Force
  • 1970s the country piled up public debt, high inflation, depreciated worth of the peso
  • 1998 a period of profound economic recession began
  • By the end of 2002 the economy began to stabilize- careful spending control and heavy taxes on then-soaring exports allowed the state to regain resources and conduct monetary policy
  • 2003- NéstorKirchner elected president
    • paid off outstanding debts with the International Monetary Fund and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises
    • Period of high economic growth and political stability- an improvement in the situation of the poorer sectors and a strong rebound of the middle class
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Soy and vegetable oils
  • Wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, and sunflower seeds
  • Cattle (beef, dairy, leather)
  • Sheep(wool), pigs
  • The world's fifth-largest wine producer
  • Industrial petrochemicals, oil, natural gas, coal, metals
  • Telecommunications- cell phones, internet
  • Tourism
  • Population- 40,301,927 
  • Mostly European descent (85-97%)- Spaniards, Italians
  • Portuguese, Germans, French, Poles, Ashkenazi Jews
  • 1990s- immigrants from Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru
    • Large Arab community- immigrants from Syria and Lebanon (most are Christian)
  • Illegal immigration-Bolivia and Paraguay
    • launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland"),to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status
  • Highly urbanized- 3.53 million people live in Buenos Aires
  • Official language is Spanish-"Castellano"
  • 93% Roman Catholic
  • Protestants present in most communities.
  • Mormons- the seventh-largest concentration in the world
  • Largest Jewish population in all of Latin America (2%)
  • Muslims (1.5%), mostly Sunni
  • After independence, constructed a national public education
  • literacy rate of 97.5%
  • School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17
  • English is the most common languages taught at school
  • Futbol (soccer)- most popular sport
    • national team won FIFA World Cup twice
  • The Open Polo Championship of Buenos Aires
  • Rugby
  • The official national sport of the country is pato, played on horseback
the arts
The Arts
  • world-renowned literature- Jorge Luis Borges
  • major producer of motion pictures- world's first animated feature films- 1917 and 1918
    • The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de motocicleta)
  • Tango- dance focused music, (1930 to mid-1950s)
    • neo-tango (Gotan Project)
  • René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery
  • Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker
  • Luis Agote performed one of the first two blood transfusions with pre-stored blood
  • RaúlPateras de Pescara demonstrated the world's first flight of a helicopter
  • Satellite, the PEHUENSAT-1was successfully launched on January 10, 2007