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The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. Mieke Bouwhuis 27/03/2006. 1’. 1’. 1’. 1’. radio 10 -8 eV optical 10 eV x rays 10 4 eV gamma rays 10 12 eV. Broadband light source. The pulsar in the Crab nebula. The observed radiation. g. e -. e -. g. Synchrotron radiation.

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The antares neutrino telescope

The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

Mieke Bouwhuis

27/03/2006


Broadband light source

1’

1’

1’

1’

radio 10-8 eV optical 10 eV x rays 104 eV gamma rays 1012eV

Broadband light source

The pulsar in the Crab nebula


The observed radiation
The observed radiation

g

e-

e-

g

Synchrotron radiation

Inverse Compton scattering

But: for some sources no synchrotron radiation is seen…


All particle cosmic ray spectrum
All particle cosmic ray spectrum

relative particle flux (logarithmic units)

energy (eV)

No point sources found yet


E g p and n from cosmic accelerators
e, g, p and n from cosmic accelerators


Pulsar

Supernova

Remnant (SNR)

Gamma-ray

Burst (GRB)

Active Galactic

Nucleus (AGN)

Microquasar

Neutrinos from high-energy sources

  • Neutral  point back

  • Weak interaction  no absorption


Indirect neutrino detection
Indirect neutrino detection

Neutrino interaction (ne, nm, nt):

Scattering angle

median scattering angle (degrees)

neutrino energy (GeV)


Neutrino cross section
Neutrino cross section

Mean free path:

cross section (cm2)

~108 m at 1 TeV

neutrino energy (GeV)

Very large volume needed


The antares neutrino telescope1

The ANTARES neutrino telescope

Mediterranean Sea, near Toulon


Detection volume and medium

Detection volume and medium

  • sea + earth = large volume

    Instrumented volume = 0.02 km3

    Effective volume = 0.2 km3 (at 10 TeV)

    = 1 km3 (at 10 PeV)

  • water for production of Cherenkov light

  • water is transparent

  • depth of 2.5 km for shielding against atmospheric background


Detection principle

c(tj - t0) = lj + dj tan(qc)

water properties

dx = 20 cm

dt = 1 ns

dq = 0.2°



Signals in the detector

100 kHz

n crosses the detector in 2 ms


Different types of background

proton

atmospheric m

atmospheric n

Earth

sea

atmosphere

proton

cosmic n

Different types of background


Antares data processing system

filter

PC

ANTARES data processing system

  • finds all correlated data

  • real time

  • data reduction by factor 104

  • high efficiency (50%)

  • high purity (90%)

  • low threshold: En > 200 GeV

m

all raw data

10 Gb/s

finds cosmic neutrinos

physics data

analysis

1 Mb/s

shore station





Line 1 data taking
Line 1: data taking

Physics

data taking

LED beacon

calibration




Muon trigger rate

real data

Monte Carlo

4 ms

space-time correlated hits

“snapshot” hit

Muon trigger rate

Physics event

found by filter:

rate (Hz)

number of correlated hits


Event display

4 ms

space-time correlated hits

“snapshot” hit

: hits used by the fit

Event Display

Physics event 17267 in run 21241

Physics event

found by filter:


Event display1

zenith angle q = 179°

Event Display

Physics event 17267 in run 21241


Event display2

zenith angle q = 146°

Event Display


Event display3

zenith angle q = 80°

Event Display

Upgoing!


Zenith angle distribution
Zenith angle distribution

1394 events after 14 hours of data taking


Gamma ray bursts grb
Gamma-ray bursts (GRB)

  • short and intense flashes of MeV gamma rays

  • happen unexpectedly, and take place at random locations in the sky

  • detected by satellites

  • most information from the observation of the ‘afterglow’

  • mechanism:



Detection of neutrinos from grbs

Specific ANTARES features

GRB features

GRB warning systems

  • All-data-to-shore

  • concept

  • Data processing

  • farm

  • Software filters

filter

PC

GRB duration (s)

Detection of neutrinos from GRBs

Combine into the “GRB method”




Gain in sensitivity for grbs

ratio of effective volumes

GRB method

standard

neutrino energy (GeV)

Gain in sensitivity for GRBs


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Composition of jets → e versus p

  • Origin of UHE cosmic rays

  • Line 1 operational, 12 lines end of 2007

  • Measured time resolution of ~1 ns

  • Expected angular resolution 0.2°

  • GRB method increases the sensitivity


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