Widely Found and Studied Neurotransmitters - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Widely Found and Studied Neurotransmitters
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Widely Found and Studied Neurotransmitters

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  1. Widely Found and Studied Neurotransmitters • Glutamate – has excitatory functions • 4 Ascending activating systems are very important • Cholinergic System uses acetylcholine • Adrenergic system uses noradrenalin • Dopaminergic system (actually 2 systems) use dopamine • Serotonergic system uses 5-Ht or serotonin • GABA or gamma-amino butyric acid – has inhibitory functions

  2. Acetylcholine • Activate two types of receptors: • Nicotinic receptors– also stimulated by nicotine and inactivated or blocked by curare • Muscarinic receptors– stimulated by muscurine and blocked by atropine and scopolamine – use second messenger

  3. Monoamines • Dopamine – up to 6 types of receptors • Tyrosine forms L-dopa • L-dopa synthesized to form dopamine • Norepinephrine – created by synthesis of dopamine • Epinephrine – created from Norepinephrine • Serotonin (5-Ht) – synthesized from tryptophan

  4. Peptides • Many types of neuropeptides; two have been extensively studied • Sustance P – constriction and dilation of blood vessels • Opioid types – • Endorphins • enkephalins

  5. How Drugs Work in the Brain • They work at the level of the synapse • Agonists • Antagonists

  6. Possible Drug Actions at the Synapse • increase or decrease the synthesis or production of neurotransmitters • increase or decrease the ability of the cell to store the chemical in vesicles • increase or decrease the amount of transmitter released by vesicles into the synapse • it can increase the number and length of time a receptor is open by increasing or decreasing the production of enzymes that break down the neurotransmitter • block or enhance the reuptake and reuse of the neurotransmitter • Altering the actions of second messegers