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Neurotransmitters. Dopamine, drugs, and animal models. Neurons: How they Function and Communicate. Brain U: action potentials. 3 classes of substances that act as neurotransmitters. A mino acids - glutamic acid (glutamate), GABA, aspartic acid & glycine

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neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

Dopamine, drugs, and animal models

3 classes of substances that act as neurotransmitters
3 classes of substances that act as neurotransmitters
  • Amino acids- glutamic acid (glutamate), GABA, aspartic acid & glycine
  • Peptides- vasopressin, somatostatin, neurotensin, etc.
  • Monoamines- norepinephrine, dopamine & serotonin; also acetylcholine. 

GABA

Glutamate

Serotonin

Vasopressin

Dopamine

slide7

Slow-acting Neurotransmitters

  • Act on Ligand-gated channels, directly influence excitability
  • Act on G-protein coupled receptors, directly influence excitability
  • Act in milliseconds, synaptic
  • Act in seconds to minutes, synaptic and extra-synaptic
  • Responsible for point-to-point, fast communication
  • Modulatethe actions of fast neurotransmitters and voltage-gated ion channels

Fast-acting Neurotransmitters

slide8

Slow-acting Neurotransmitters

  • Can trigger changes in genetic programs by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels and Ca2+permeant ligand-gated channels
  • Trigger changes in gene expression through a wide variety of signaling cascades as well as modulation of membrane Ca2+ flux through voltage and ligand-gated channels
  • Examples: Acetylcholine, Glutamate, GABA, Glycine
  • Examples: Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Serotonin

Fast-acting Neurotransmitters

slide9

+NH2 - CH - COOH-

CH2

Tyrosine

Hydroxylase (TH)

+NH2 - CH2 - COOH

OH

CH2

OH

OH

L-DOPA

Dopa

Decarboxylase (DDC)

+NH2 - CH2

CH2

OH

OH

DOPAMINE

Dopamine Biosynthesis

TYROSINE

 Used in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

slide10

Dopamine Neurotransmission

  • Mesolimbic / Mesocortical
  • Ventral Tegmental Area to Nucleus Accumbens, Amygdala, Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex
  • Memory
  • Reward and Desire
  • Motivation and Emotional Response
  • Addiction
  • Abnormal function can cause hallucinations

amygdala

slide11

Central Dopaminergic Pathways

  • Nigrostriatal pathway
  • Substantianigra to Caudate/Putamen
  • Motor control

Death of neurons leads to Parkinson’s Disease