ceng 410 computer and network security n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CENG 410: Computer and Network Security PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CENG 410: Computer and Network Security

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

CENG 410: Computer and Network Security - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 78 Views
  • Uploaded on

CENG 410: Computer and Network Security. Fall 2010-2011. Lecture 1-2 Dr. Zaher Merhi. Security, Vulnerability, Threats, Attacks, Criminals, Methods of Defense. In this Lecture. What is security? What are the types of threats and/or attacks that faces security?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CENG 410: Computer and Network Security' - fleta


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ceng 410 computer and network security

CENG 410: Computer and Network Security

Fall 2010-2011

Lecture 1-2

Dr. Zaher Merhi

Security, Vulnerability, Threats, Attacks, Criminals, Methods of Defense

in this lecture
In this Lecture

What is security?

What are the types of threats and/or attacks that faces security?

What are the important aspects of computer security?

What are vulnerabilities?

What are the security goals?

Who is attacking?

What are the effective methods of control?

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

definitions
Definitions
  • Computer Security: The act of protecting valuable information, software and/or hardware that can be used to hurt certain parties and/or that can be of a financial benefit to other parties.
  • Computer security deals with:
    • Examining the risks of security in computing
    • Considering available countermeasures or controls
    • Stimulating thought about uncovered vulnerabilities
    • Identifying areas where more work is needed

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

what to protect
What to Protect?
  • Any part of a computing system can be a target of a crime.
    • A computing system is a collection of hardware, software, storage media, data, and people that an organization uses to perform computing tasks.
  • Principle of Easiest Penetration:An intruder must be expected to use any available means of penetration.
    • Strengthening one aspect of a system may simply make another means of penetration more appealing to intruders.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

attack methodologies
Attack Methodologies
  • Computer security designers must anticipate what means the attackers may use to penetrate the system and build way to prevent them.
    • Vulnerability: is a weakness in the security system. Ex. A loophole in the system that allows intruders to enter the system.
    • Threat: is a set of circumstances that has the potential to cause loss or harm.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

differences between threats and vulnerabilities
Differences between Threats and Vulnerabilities
  • How to Control Threats?
    • A threat is blocked by control of a vulnerability.
    • To devise controls, we must know as much about threats as possible.

There is a threat the water may actually cause the man to drawn or get wet.

There is a small crack that can cause the man to get wet. This crack is a vulnerable point in the system

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

types of threats
Types of Threats
  • Interception: unauthorized party has gained access to an asset.
    • (copying of data, wiretapping, might not been detected)
  • Interruption: an asset of the system becomes lost, unavailable, or unusable.
    • (eraser of data, malfunction of an OS file)
  • Modification: an unauthorized party tampers with an asset.
    • (change values in a Dbase, modify transmitted data)
  • Fabrication: an unauthorized party creates counterfeit objects on a computing system.
    • (An intruder may insert spurious transactions to a network communication system or add records to an existing database)

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

what drives attackers
What Drives Attackers
  • A malicious attacker must have three things:
    • method: the skills, knowledge, tools, and other things with which to be able to pull off the attack
    • opportunity: the time and access to accomplish the attack
    • motive: a reason to want to perform this attack against this system
  • Think of the acronym "MOM."
  • Deny any of those three things and the attack will not occur. However, it is not easy to cut these off.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

security goals
Security Goals
  • Computer security addresses three important aspects: confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
    • Confidentiality:Ensures that computer related assets are accessed ONLY by authorized parties.
      • Access = Reading + Viewing + Printing + Knowledge of existence
    • Integrity: Assets can ONLY be modified by authorized parities in authorized ways.
      • Modified = Writing + Changing + Status Changing + deleting + creating
    • Availability: Assets are accessible to authorized parties at appropriate times.
      • Denial of service : the act of denying the right to access certain information at a given time.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

relationship between confidentiality integrity and availability
Relationship Between Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability

Security in computing addresses these three goals.

One of the challenges in building a secure system is finding the right balance among the goals, which often conflict

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

vulnerabilities
Vulnerabilities

Vulnerability exists in software, hardware and data

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

hardware vulnerabilities
Hardware Vulnerabilities
  • Hardware is more visible than software, largely because it is composed of physical objects.
    • Attacks can occur by adding, changing or removing unauthorized devices
    • Involuntary machine slaughter
    • Voluntary machine slaughter
    • Machine Theft

Lebanese International University CENG410 :Computer and Network Security

software vulnerabilities
Software Vulnerabilities
  • Computing equipment is of little use without the software that users expect.
    • Software Deletion:
      • Erasing some files that cause the software to crash. Configuration managements is used to prevent these issues
    • Software Modifications:
      • Trojan horse: a program that overtly does one thing while covertly doing another
      • virus: a specific type of Trojan horse that can be used to spread its "infection" from one computer to another
      • trapdoor: a program that has a secret entry point
      • information leaks in a program: code that makes information accessible to unauthorized people or programs
    • Software Theft:
      • Includes unauthorized copying of software

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

data vulnerabilities
Data Vulnerabilities
  • Because of its visible nature, a data attack is a more widespread and serious problem than either a hardware or software attack.
    • Out of context data has no intrinsic value
    • Data items in context relate to cost
    • Data value by time is less predictable or consistent
  • Principle of Adequate Protection:Computer items must be protected only until they lose their value. They must be protected to a degree consistent with their value.
    • The notion of a small protection window applies primarily to data, but it can in some cases be relevant for software and hardware, too.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

data vulnerabilities1
Data Vulnerabilities
  • Data Confidentiality: Data can be gathered by many means, such as tapping wires, planting bugs in output devices, …, etc. or simply requesting the data.
  • Data integrity: A higher level of sophistication is needed to modify existing data or to fabricate new data than to intercept existing data.
    • The most common sources of this kind of problem are malicious programs, errant file system utilities, and flawed communication facilities.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

data security
Data Security

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

attackers profile
Attackers Profile
  • Amateurs: They have committed most of the computer crimes reported to date.
    • Most embezzlers are not career criminals but rather are normal people who observe a weakness in a security system that allows them to access cash or other valuables
  • Crackers or Malicious Hackers: high school or university students, attempt to access computing facilities for which they have not been authorized.
    • Cracking a computer's defenses is seen as the ultimate victimless crime. The perception is that nobody is hurt or even endangered by a little stolen machine time

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

attackers profile1
Attackers Profile
  • Career Criminals: the career computer criminal understands the targets of computer crime.
    • Criminals seldom change fields from arson, murder, or auto theft to computing; more often, criminals begin as computer professionals who engage in computer crime, finding the prospects and payoff good.
  • Terrorists:
    • targets of attack: denial-of-service attacks and web site defacements are popular for any political organization because they attract attention to the cause and bring undesired negative attention to the target of the attack.
    • propaganda vehicles: web sites, web logs, and e-mail lists are effective, fast, and inexpensive ways to get a message to many people.
    • methods of attack: to launch offensive attacks requires use of computers.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

defense methodologies
Defense Methodologies
  • Harm occurs when a threat is realized against a vulnerability.
  • To protect against harm, then, we can neutralize the threat, close the vulnerability, or both.
  • The possibility for harm to occur is called risk
    • prevent it, by blocking the attack or closing the vulnerability
    • deter it, by making the attack harder but not impossible
    • deflect it, by making another target more attractive (or this one less so)
    • detect it, either as it happens or some time after the fact
    • recoverfrom its effects

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

methods of control
Methods of Control
  • In ancient times people started thinking about physical security:
    • Strong gate , heavy walls , surrounding moat, arrow sites, crenellation, drawbridge, gatekeepers
  • Computer security and old physical security share the same characteristics.
    • There are a lot of control mechanisms to achieve security, some are cheaper than others

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

multiple control
Multiple Control

Encryption, software control, hardware control, Policies and procedure and physical control.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

encryption
Encryption
  • Encryption is the formal name for the scrambling process
    • Data is transformed from their normal state (cleartext) so that they are unintelligible to the outside observer (ciphertext or enciphered text).
  • Encryption clearly addresses the need for confidentiality of data.
    • it can be used to ensure integrity.
  • Encryption is the basis of protocols that enable us to provide security while accomplishing an important system or network task.
  • Encryption does not solve all computer security problems.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

software controls
Software Controls
  • Encryption is the primary way of protecting valuables.
  • Program controls include the following:
    • Internal program controls: parts of the program that enforce security restrictions, such as access limitations in a database management program
    • Operating system and network system controls: limitations enforced by the operating system or network to protect each user from all other users
    • Independent control programs: application programs, such as password checkers, intrusion detection utilities, or virus scanners, that protect against certain types of vulnerabilities
    • Development controls: quality standards under which a program is designed, coded, tested, and maintained to prevent software faults from becoming exploitable vulnerabilities
  • Software controls is implemented by using tools and techniques such as hardware components, encryption, or information gathering.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

hardware control
Hardware Control
  • Numerous hardware devices have been created to assist in providing computer security.
  • These devices include a variety of means, such as
    • hardware or smart card implementations of encryption
    • locks or cables limiting access or deterring theft
    • devices to verify users' identities
    • firewalls
    • intrusion detection systems
    • circuit boards that control access to storage media

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

policies and procedure
Policies and Procedure

We can rely on agreed-on procedures or policies among users rather than enforcing security through hardware or software means.

We must not forget the value of community standards and expectations when we consider how to enforce security.

Society in general and the computing community in particular have not adopted formal standards of ethical behavior.

Lebanese International University CENG410: Computer and Network Security

physical control
Physical Control
  • Includes Locks on doors, guards at entry points, backup copies of important software and data, and physical site planning that reduces the risk of natural disasters.
    • Often the simple physical controls are overlooked while we seek more sophisticated approaches
  • Principle of Effectiveness: Controls must be used and used properly to be effective. They must be efficient, easy to use, and appropriate.