Feudalism • With the Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars on the lose the people needed protection on the local level. • Feudalism provides that protection. • Feudalism also provides a cultural center for the people – the manor
How does it work • A king grants control of some of his lands, a fief, to powerful local lords called vassals. • The vassals promised military service, money and loyalty to the king. The military service was generally 40 days a year.
How does it work pt. II • The vassals were given more land then they could effectively govern and protect themselves. They too had lesser lords (Knights) that they let administer some of the fief the king gave them. Finally the Serfs worked and paid taxes (grain) in return for protection from bandits and invaders
Peasants (Serfs) • Not slaves. Not free either. Bound to the land • Mutual obligations: • Peasants paid fees, worked on farm, maintenance, etc. • Lords allowed peasants to farm their land too and offered protection.
Manoralism A self-sufficient Economy
4 Agricultural Revolution New farming technologies iron plow harness windmill three-field system Increaseinfoodproduction Population explosion Between 1000 and 1300, the population of Europe doubled.
In 732 at the Battles of Tours and Poitiers The Franks under Charles Martel (the Hammer) defeat the Muslims who had been advancing north from Spain. • By the late 900s the Vikings and Magyars (Hungarians) had converted to Christianity and settled down to become Europeans • This creates Stability and creates an atmosphere for renewed TRADE
Trade Revives • This population explosion meant that people needed/wanted new things from other places. • Armed caravans began to move along new trade routes.
Trade brings changes • Trade Trade Fairs New Towns • New money • Business: Partnerships, insurance, banking, bills of exchange, etc.
Trade brings changes • Social Changes • Serfdom disappears, tenant farmers by 1300. • Merchants, traders form up the middle class. • Loans, or usury
Guilds • Guilds were associations of artisans and merchants of similar economic interests. • How to become a guild member? • Apprentice • Journeyman • Women?