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Granulocytes. They participate in inflammatory reaction, and can be called inflammatory cells 。 By differential staining characterization of the granules , they are different from neutrophils and each granule cell 。. Inflammatory cells :

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  • They participate in inflammatory reaction, and can be called inflammatory cells。
  • By differential staining characterization of the granules,they are different from neutrophils and each granule cell。
  • Inflammatory cells:
    • They are applicable to many different cell types;some are long-term residents of normal tissues (such as mast cells and macrophages),others are circulating cells (such as lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets)。


  • Most of inflammatory cells express surface receptors for complement components, for the Fc portions of antibody molecules, and for various cytokines。
  • Their activities tend to be controlled directly or indirectly by ongoing immune responses or by activation of the complement cascade。
mast cells
Mast cells
  • The granules of mast cells contain an acid porteoglycan;在人體其大小為5-7 um in diameter,且具有不同種外形;每一個細胞內約有50-200個packed granules。
  • Each granule is membrane-bounded and 0.1- 0.4 um in diameter, and contains relatively large amounts of histamine, heparin, TNF-α, and other preformed inflammatory mediators;also contains superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and acid hydrolases to degrade the extracellular matrix。
  • 主要出現於perivascular connective tissue、epithelia及lymph nodes,容易與呼吸道及食道抗原接觸,因其granules染色特徵 (包含之中性proteases種類不同) 可分為:
Mucosal mast cells(MMC):具有一些與basophils相似得特徵,如細胞較小、生命期短、以chondroitin sulphate作為acid porteoglycan、需T細胞協助其細胞生長及分化等。
    • Connective tissue mast cells(TCMC)。
  • 具有anaphylatoxins (C3a、C5a)分子的受器。
  • 為IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction所必須的細胞,因此其細胞表面具有許多和IgE Fc親和性高之表面受器(FcεRI)。
  • 當其表面IgE與抗原接觸,促使mast cell活化進行degranulation,將granule中的物質釋放出來,這些物質中有些可以促使細胞通透性增加、平滑肌收縮及促發炎細胞發生化學遷移,這些物質被稱為mast cell mediators。
mast cell mediators
Mast cell mediators
  • Preformed mediators:
    • Histamine:刺激平滑肌收縮及增加血管通透性。
    • eosinophil and neutrophil chemotactic factors(ECF and NCF):與其他granulocytes作用,增加granulocyte細胞C3表面受器的形成;刺激影響呼吸作用產生含氧化合物形成。
    • proteoglycan:如heparin是一種anticoagulant及anticomplementary,可以克服凝結作用,促進mast cell mediator diffusion。
    • acid hydrolase
    • neutral proteases
mast cell mediators1
Mast cell mediators
  • Secondary mediators:Slow reacting substance (SRS)
    • Lipid derivatives of arachidonic acid,有Slow reacting substance (SRS,three different leukotrienes (LTC4、LTD4、LTE4))、LTB4 (chemotactic agent)、prostaglandins (PGE2、PGD2、PGF2α)、platelet activating factor (PAF)。
    • arachidonic acid metabolism pathway:
      • cyclo-oxygenase(prostaglandin synthetase) path
      • lopoxygenase path
  • cytokines
    • tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α):proinflammatory cytokine。
    • chemokines:IL-8 (proinflammatory cytokine),IL-4(to promote B細胞經switching產生IgE)、IL-5 (to promote the differentiation and activation of eosinophils)。
  • The granules of basophils contain an acid porteoglycan。
  • 為循環細胞之一,與mast cell具有多項相同的作用。
  • 大小為10-15 um in diameter。
  • 細胞表面具有許多和IgE Fc親和性高之表面受器(FcεRI),及含有histamine-rich cytoplasmic granules。
  • 正常情況下,basophil在組織的含量很低;the importance of basophils in immunity and hypersensitivity has yet to be proven。
  • The granules of eosinophils contain several basic proteins。
  • Their clinical significance derives from their strong association with allergic reaction and with helminthic parasite infection。
  • 人類的eosinophils大小約為12-17 um in diameter,具有少量的specific granules,每個granule大小約為0.5 um in diameter。
  • granule中主要含有eosinophil peroxidase(EPO)、other enzymes that can generate toxic oxygen metabolites、basic proteins(其中有一種稱為major basic protein與acidic dyes,如eosin,具有高親和性,染成紅色的granule);不具有lysozyme。
  • granule中之氧化作用主要產生H2O2及superoxide,不確定是否會產生oxygen radicals。
  • EPO is able to work in concert with hydrogen peroxide and iodide or chloride ions to lys some microorganisms。
  • Basci proteins (cationic proteins) are the major source of lytic activity in the eosinophils。
  • 其他酵素,如histaminase,β-glucuronidase,phospholipase D,其作用尚未明白。
  • 許多由eosinophils產生的物質對mast cell mediators有抑制作用,可能具有抗發炎作用。
  • 佔循環系統中白血球量的1-3%,其發生受到granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor(CM-CSF)、IL-3及IL-5的影響,其中IL-5為specific eosinophil growth factor。
  • 在骨髓成熟期約為2-6天,進入循環系統期半生期約為6-12小時,在結締組織僅可生活數小時。
  • 表面具有IgE Fc受器(FcεRII),期親和性低;約有10-30%的eosinophils具有親和性低的FcγRIII及中親和性的FcγRII;40-50%的eosinophils具補體受器;藉此使eosinophils認識許多種抗原及被IgE及IgG包裹的細胞,而促使吞噬細胞進行吞噬。
  • 研究顯示eosinophil稍具有吞噬作用,其可藉由extracellular degranulation將被抗體包裹的細胞或外來顆粒消化。
mediators of inflammation
Mediators of inflammation
  • Host-derived compounds that are secreted by activated cells and serve to trigger or enhance specific aspects of inflammation。
  • Many of the cytokines act as inflammatory mediators,other major inflammatory mediators are classified into four groups:
    • Vasoactive and smooth muscle-constricting mediators
    • Chemotactic factors
    • Enzymatic mediators
    • Proteoglycan mediators

Mediators of inflammation

  • Types of immunologically inflammatory responses
    • Cell-mediated immunity(CMI)
    • Immune complex-mediated inflammation
    • IgE-mediated inflammation
    • Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity