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CPE 631: Vector Processing. Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Alabama in Huntsville Aleksandar Milenković milenka@ece.uah.edu http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka. Outline. Properties of Vector Processing Components of a Vector Processor Vector Execution Time

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## CPE 631: Vector Processing

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**CPE 631: Vector Processing**Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Alabama in Huntsville Aleksandar Milenkovićmilenka@ece.uah.edu http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka**Outline**• Properties of Vector Processing • Components of a Vector Processor • Vector Execution Time • Real-world Problems: Vector Length and Stride • Vector Optimizations: Chaining, Conditional Execution, Sparse Matrices**Why Vector Processors?**• Instruction level parallelism (Ch 3&4) • Deeper pipeline and wider superscalar machines to extract more parallelism • more register file ports, more registers,more hazard interlock logic • In dynamically scheduled machinesinstruction window, reorder buffer, rename register filesmust grow to have enough capacity to keep relevant information about in-flight instructions • Difficult to build machines supporting large number of in-flight instructions =>limit the issue width and pipeline depths =>limit the amount parallelism you can extract • Commercial versions long before ILP machines**Vector Processing Definitions**+ + + + + • Vector - a set of scalar data items, all of the same type, stored in memory • Vector processor - an ensemble of hardware resources, including vector registers, functional pipelines, processing elements, and register counters for performing vector operations • Vector processing occurs when arithmetic or logical operations are applied to vectors v1 v2 r2 r1 VECTOR (N operations) SCALAR (1 operation) + v3 vector length add.vv v3, v1, v2 r3 add r3, r1, r2**Properties of Vector Processors**• 1) Single vector instruction specifies lots of work • equivalent to executing an entire loop • fewer instructions to fetch and decode • 2) Computation of each result in the vector is independent of the computation of other results in the same vector • deep pipeline without data hazards; high clock rate • 3) Hw checks for data hazards only between vector instructions (once per vector, not per vector element) • 4) Access memory with known pattern • elements are all adjacent in memory =>highly interleaved memory banks provides high bandw. • access is initiated for entire vector => high memory latency is amortised (no data caches are needed) • 5) Control hazards from the loop branches are reduced • nonexistent for one vector instruction**Properties of Vector Processors (cont’d)**• Vector operations: arithmetic (add, sub, mul, div), memory accesses, effective address calculations • Multiple vector instructions can be in progressat the same time => more parallelism • Applications to benefit • Large scientific and engineering applications(car crash simulations, whether forecasting, …) • Multimedia applications**Basic Vector Architectures**• Vector processor: ordinary pipelined scalar unit + vector unit • Types of vector processors • Memory-memory processors: all vector operations are memory-to-memory (CDC) • Vector-register processors: all vector operations except load and store are among the vector registers(CRAY-1, CRAY-2, X-MP, Y-MP, NEX SX/2(3), Fujitsu) • VMIPS – Vector processor as an extension of the 5-stage MIPS processor**Components of a vector-register processor**• Vector Registers: each vector register is a fixed length bank holding a single vector • has at least 2 read and 1 write ports • typically 8-32 vector registers, each holding 64-128 64 bit elements • VMIPS: 8 vector registers, each holding 64 elements (16 Rd ports, 8 Wr ports) • Vector Functional Units (FUs): fully pipelined, start new operation every clock • typically 4 to 8 FUs: FP add, FP mult, FP reciprocal (1/X), integer add, logical, shift; • may have multiple of same unit • VMIPS: 5 FUs (FP add/sub, FP mul, FP div, FP integer, FP logical)**Components of a vector-register processor (cont’d)**• Vector Load-Store Units (LSUs) • fully pipelined unit to load or store a vector; may have multiple LSUs • VMIPS: 1 VLSU, bandwidth is 1 word per cycle after initial delay • Scalar registers • single element for FP scalar or address • VMIPS: 32 GPR, 32 FPRsthey are read out and latched at one input of the FUs • Cross-bar to connect FUs, LSUs, registers • cross-bar to connect Rd/Wr ports and FUs**VMIPS: Basic Structure**FP add/subtract FP multiply FP divide Integer Logical Main Memory • 8 64-element vector registers • 5 FUs; each unit is fully pipelined, can start a new operation on every clock cycle • Load/store unit - fully pipelined • Scalar registers Vector Load/Store Vector registers Scalar registers**VMIPS Vector Instructions**Instr. Operands Operation Comment ADDV.D V1,V2,V3V1=V2+V3 vector + vector ADDSV.D V1,F0,V2V1=F0+V2 scalar + vector MULV.D V1,V2,V3V1=V2xV3 vector x vector MULSV.D V1,F0,V2V1=F0xV2 scalar x vector LV V1,R1V1=M[R1..R1+63] load, stride=1 LVWS V1,R1,R2V1=M[R1..R1+63*R2] load, stride=R2 LVI V1,R1,V2V1=M[R1+V2(i),i=0..63] indir.("gather") CeqV.D VM,V1,V2VMASKi = (V1i=V2i)? comp. setmask MTC1 VLR,R1Vec. Len. Reg. = R1 set vector length MFC1 VM,R1R1 = Vec. Mask set vector mask See table G3 for the VMIPS vector instructions.**VMIPS Vector Instructions (cont’d)**Instr. Operands Operation Comment SUBV.D V1,V2,V3V1=V2-V3 vector - vector SUBSV.D V1,F0,V2V1=F0-V2 scalar – vector SUBVS.D V1,V2,F0V1=V2- F0 vector - scalar DIVV.D V1,V2,V3V1=V2/V3 vector / vector DIVSV.D V1,F0,V2V1=F0/V2 scalar / vector DIVVS.D V1,V2,F0V1=V2/F0 vector / scalar .. POP R1, M Count the 1s in the VM register CVM Set the vector-mask register to all 1s See table G3 for the VMIPS vector instructions.**DAXPY: Double aX + Y**L.D F0,a ;load scalar a LV V1,Rx ;load vector X MULVS V2,V1,F0 ;vector-scalar mult. LV V3,Ry ;load vector Y ADDV.D V4,V2,V3 ;add SV Ry,V4 ;store the result Assuming vectors X, Y are length 64 Scalar vs. Vector L.D F0,a DADDIU R4,Rx,#512 ;last address to load loop: L.D F2, 0(Rx) ;load X(i) MULT.D F2,F0,F2 ;a*X(i) L.D F4, 0(Ry) ;load Y(i) ADD.D F4,F2,F4 ;a*X(i) + Y(i) S.D F4,0(Ry) ;store into Y(i) DADDIU Rx,Rx,#8 ;increment index to X DADDIU Ry,Ry,#8 ;increment index to Y DSUBU R20,R4,Rx ;compute bound BNEZ R20,loop ;check if done Operations: 578 (2+9*64) vs. 321 (1+5*64) (1.8X) Instructions: 578 (2+9*64) vs. 6 instructions (96X) Hazards: 64X fewer pipeline hazards**Vector Execution Time**1: LV V1,Rx ;load vector X 2: MULVS.D V2, V1,F0 ;vector-scalar mult. LV V3,Ry ;load vector Y 3: ADDV.D V4,V2,V3 ;add 4: SV Ry,V4 ;store the result • Time = f(vector length, data dependencies, struct. hazards) • Initiation rate: rate at which a FU consumes vector elements (= number of lanes; usually 1 or 2 on Cray T-90) • Convoy: set of vector instructions that can begin execution in same clock (no struct. or data hazards) • Chime: approx. time to execute a convoy • m convoys take m chimes; if each vector length is n, then they take approx. m x n clock cycles (ignores overhead; good approximation for long vectors) 4 convoys, 1 lane, VL=64 => 4 x 64 256 clocks (or 4 clocks per result)**VMIPS Start-up Time**• Start-up time: pipeline latency time (depth of FU pipeline); another sources of overhead • Assume convoys don't overlap; vector length = n:**VMIPS Execution Time**12 Time 1: LV V1,Rx 2: MULV V2,F0,V1 LV V3,Ry 3: ADDV V4,V2,V3 4: SV Ry,V4 12 n n n 6 n 12**Vector Load/Store Units & Memories**• Start-up overheads usually longer for LSUs • Memory system must sustain (# lanes x word) /clock cycle • Many Vector Procs. use banks (vs. simple interleaving): • support multiple loads/stores per cycle => multiple banks & address banks independently • support non-sequential accesses • Note: No. memory banks > memory latency to avoid stalls • m banks => m words per memory latency l clocks • if m < l, then gap in memory pipeline: • may have 1024 banks in SRAM**Real-World Issues: Vector Length**• What to do when vector length is not exactly 64? • N can be unknown at compile time? • Vector-Length Register (VLR): controls the length of any vector operation, including a vector load or store (cannot be > the length of vector registers) • What if n > Max. Vector Length (MVL)?=> Strip mining • for(i=0; i<n, i++) • {Y(i)=a*X(i)+Y(i)}**Strip Mining**• Strip mining: generation of code such that each vector operation is done for a size to the MVL • 1st loop do short piece (n mod MVL), rest VL = MVL • Overhead of executing strip-mined loop? • i = 0; • VL = n mod MVL; • for (j=0; j<n/MVL; j++){ • for(i<VL; i++) • {Y(i)=a*X(i)+Y(i)} • VL = MVL;}**Vector Stride**: : • Suppose adjacent elements not sequential in memory (e.g. matrix multiplication) • Matrix C accesses are not adjacent (800 bytes between) • Stride: distance separating elements that are to be merged into a single vector => LVWS (load vector with stride) instruction • Strides can cause bank conflicts (e.g., stride=32 and 16 banks) (1,1) (1,2) • for(i=0; i<100; i++) • for(j=0; j<100; j++) { • A(i,j)=0.0; • for(k=0; k<100; k++) • A(i,j)=A(i,j)+B(i,k)*C(k,j); • } (1,100) (2,1) (2,100)**Vector Opt #1: Chaining**• Suppose: MULV.D V1,V2,V3ADDV.D V4,V1,V5 ; separate convoy? • Chaining: vector register (V1) is not as a single entity but as a group of individual registers, then pipeline forwarding can work on individual elements of a vector • Flexible chaining: allow vector to chain to any other active vector operation => more read/write port • As long as enough HW, increases convoy size**DAXPY Chaining: CRAY-1**25 • CRAY-1 has one memory access pipe either for load or store (not for both at the same time) • 3 chains • Chain 1: LV V3 • Chain 2: LV V1 + MULV V2,F0,V1 + ADDV V4,V2,V3 • Chain 3: SV V4 Time Chain 1: Chain 2: Chain 3: 12 n n 12 n**3 Chains DAXPY for CRAY-1**Memory Memory Memory : : : : : : : : : : : F0 R/W port R/W port V4 Access pipe Access pipe V1 Access pipe V3 Multiply pipe R/W port V2 V3 Add pipe V4**DAXPY Chaining: CRAY X-MP**25 • CRAY X-MP has 3 memory access pipes, two for vector load and one for vector store • 1 chain: LV V3, LV V1 + MULV V2,F0,V1 + ADDV V4,V2,V3 + SV V4 Time Chain 1: 12 n 12 n n 12 n**One Chain DAXPY for CRAY X-MP**Memory Memory : : : : : : : : F0 R port R port V1 V3 Access pipe Access pipe Multiply pipe V2 V4 Add pipe W port**Vector Opt #2: Conditional Execution**• Consider: • Vector-mask control takes a Boolean vector: when vector-mask register is loaded from vector test, vector instructions operate only on vector elements whose corresponding entries in the vector-mask register are 1 • Requires clock even for the elements where the mask is 0 • Some VP use vector mask only to disable the storing of the result and the operation still occurs; zero division exception is possible? => mask operation • do 100 i = 1, 64 if (A(i) .ne. 0) then A(i) = A(i) – B(i) endif100 continue**Vector Mask Control**• LV V1, Ra ;load A into V1 • LV V2, Rb ;load B into V2 • L.D F0, #0 ;load FP zero to F0 • SNESV.D F0,V1 ;sets VM register if V1(i)<>0 • SUBV.D V1,V1,V2 ;subtract under VM • CVM ;set VM to all 1s • SV Ra,V1 ;store results in A**Vector Opt #3: Sparse Matrices**• Sparse matrix: elements of a vector are usually stored in some compacted form and then accessed indirectly • Suppose: • Mechanism to support sparse matrices: scatter-gather operations • Gather (LVI) operation takes an index vector and fetches the vector whose elements are at the addresses given by adding a base address to the offsets given in the index vector => a nonsparse vector in a vector register • After these elements are operated on in dense form, the sparse vector can be stored in expanded form by a scatter store (SVI), using the same index vector • do 100 i = 1, n100 A(K(i))=A(K(i))+C(M(i))**Sparse Matrices Example**• Can't be done by compiler since can't know Ki elements distinct • do 100 i = 1, n100 A(K(i))=A(K(i))+C(M(i)) • LV Vk, Rk ; load K • LVI Va,(Ra+Vk) ; load A(K(i)) • LV Vm,Rm ; load M • LVI Vc,(Rc+Vm) ; load C(M(i)) • ADDV.D Va,Va,Vc ; add them • SVI (Ra+Vk),Va ; store A(K(i))**Sparse Matrices Example (cont’d)**• LV V1,Ra ;load A into V1 • L.D F0,#0 ;load FP zero into F0 • SNESV.D F0,V1 ;sets VM to 1 if V1(i)<>F0 • CVI V2,#8 ;generates indices in V2 • POP R1,VM ;find the number of 1s • MTC1 VLR,R1 ;load vector-length reg. • CVM ;clears the mask • LVI V3,(Ra+V2) ;load the nonzero As • LVI V4,(Rb+V2) ;load the nonzero Bs • SUBV.D V3,V3,V4 ;do the subract • SVI (Ra+V2),V3 ;store A back • Use CVI to create index 0, 1xm, ..., 63xm(compressed index vector whose entries correspond to the positions with a 1 in the mask register**Things to Remember**• Properties of vector processing • Each result independent of previous result • Vector instructions access memory with known pattern • Reduces branches and branch problems in pipelines • Single vector instruction implies lots of work ( loop) • Components of a vector processor: vector registers, functional units, load/store, crossbar.... • Strip mining technique for long vectors • Optimisation techniques: chaining, conditional execution, sparse matrices

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