Amateurism vs. Professionalism in Ancient Athletics. Toledo 1963.28, Attic bilingual eye cup Side A: athletic victor Photograph by Maria Daniels, courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art. Some Basic Questions. What Kind of Prizes Did Ancient Athletes Receive? How Much Training Did They Get?
Toledo 1963.28, Attic bilingual eye cupSide A: athletic victorPhotograph by Maria Daniels, courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art
Death of Hector (Iliad XX.159-166)
Thereby they ran, one fleeing, and one pursuing. In front a good man fled, but one mightier far pursued him swiftly; for it was not for beast of sacrifice or for bull's hide  that they strove, such as are men's prizes for swiftness of foot, but it was for the life of horse-taming Hector that they ran.And as when single-hooved horses that are winners of prizes course swiftly about the turning-points, and some -- great prize is set forth, a tripod haply or a woman, in honour of a warrior that is dead;  even so these twain circled thrice with swift feet about the city of Priam; and all the gods gazed upon them.
Also Funeral Games for Patroclus (Iliad XXIII=Miller 1)
References to rich prizes for athletes and poets
For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably,  and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her.
 And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men,  then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.  Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents.
 Then I crossed over to Chalcis, to the games of wise Amphidamas where the sons of the great-hearted hero proclaimed and appointed prizes. And there I boast that I gained the victory with a song and carried off a handled tripod which I dedicated to the Muses of Helicon, in the place where they first set me in the way of clear song. 
The problem: How can the athlete “tithe” his prize?
Aristis Inscription (Miller 146/205)
The problem: Where did he get the money for this statue?
Solonic Reforms in Athens (Miller 163/223)
The problem: Is this a “reduction” in prize?
What were these prizes worth?
Inscriptional Record of Prizes (Miller 84/120)
Pindar often praises victor’s coach by name; e.g., Ol 8.54-66
And if in my song I have magnified Melesias' glory as a trainer of youths,
let no resentment strike me with a foul stone, for I will also sing of his triumph over the youths at Nemea, and mention next his victory against the men in pankration.
To teach, then, is easier for one who knows. The man of no foresight gives a fool's lesson, for the thoughts of inexperience have no weight. Melesias will tell you better than anyone how to train man bent on taking glory from contests. And now Alkimedon is his pride, and his thirtieth triumph:
Zenon, “business manager” of Apollonios
Apollonios, “Minister of Finance of Ptolemy II (285-246 B.C.)
Pyrrhos, young ward of Zenon
Hierokles of Alexandria, trainer and teacher of Pyrrhos
And Professional Sports Physicians?
Demokedes of Croton (Miller 146/216)
Inscription of Markos Aurelios Asklepiades (Miller #153/213, c. AD 200): threats against athletes
Philostratos (Miller #154/214, c. AD 230): describes scandal in boy’s pale at Isthmia—bribery possible everywhere except Olympia?
Galen's attack on professionalization of athletes(Miller #155/215, c. AD 180):
exaggeration of negative stereotypes?
athletic dynasty at Croton (S. Italy):
12 Olympic stade winners between 588 & 484 BC
(c. 50% of total) 588, 584, 576, 564, 560, 548 [note gap], 508, 504, 496, 492, 488, 484; first 7 places in one Olympiad
Milo's career in wrestling: 536-512
Astylos wins stade & diaulos for Croton in 488 & 484, competes for Syracuse in 480 & 476 (corresponds with economic & political decline of Croton)See Miller 224
Conclusion: high degree of athletic professionalization already in 6th century BC
Alcibiades (Miller #159/219, 48/67, /116)
Evidence for cost of sponsoring chariot team.
Question: Is this cost unique to the event?
Phayllos of Kroton (Miller #38e/60a, from Herodotus 8.47)
Was Phayllos from a wealthy family or did he use his athletic winnings for this?
Victorian view of Greek Athletes:
Earliest Greek athletes are aristocrats. (e.g., Pindar)
Non-aristocratic athletes first compete extensively in early classical period.
Hesiod (Works & Days, Theogony: last half of 8th BC): wins tripod at Games of Amphidamas
Koroibos of Elis: first Olympic victor (cook)
Glaukos of Karystos: boxing, early 6th BC (farmboy)
Demokedes the Physician (Miller 146/216, from Herodotus 3.129)
at court of tyrant Polykrates of Samos
prisoner of war of Darius of Persia
marries daughter of Milo of Croton
Astylos (Miller #164/224 from Pausanias)
Scholars have called him an aristocrat but why, then did he transfer his allegiance, if not for money?
Mark Antony and Markos Antonios Artemidoros (Miller 149/209): special honors for athletic guilds (synodos)
A Clubhouse for the Capitoline Games (Miller 152/212)
From Athlete to Sports Administrator: Marcos Aurelios Asklepiades (Miller 153/213)
Attack on Professional Athletes by the Physician Galen (Miller 155/215)
Why does Astylos of Kroton decide to play for Syracuse? (Miller 164/224)
How does the tyrant Dionysios of Syracuse try to persuade Antipater of Miletus to play for him? (Miller 165/225)
What does the philosopher Xenophanes think is more important than the strength of men or horses? (Miller 167/229)
What does the tragedian Euripides think is the greatest evil which exists in Greece? (Miller 168/230). Why?
In what way does Socrates argue in Plato’s Apology (Miller 169/231) that he is more helpful to Athens than an Olympic victor? What reward does he think he deserves?
Relations Between Panhellenic Sanctuaries
What is the “curse of Moline”? (Miller 170/232)
Why does Plutarch (Miller 173/235) say that the Corinthians chose celery for victor crowns at the Isthmian games?
Find the document in Miller which describes the building Phillip of Macedon built at Olympia to celebrate his accomplishments (See Perrottet, pg. 153).