Bully Prevention in PBS. Bruce Stiller; Rhonda Torki. Session Goals. Review Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (Stop/Walk/Talk) -- What we have learned after 3 years of implementation
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Bruce Stiller; Rhonda Torki
Bullying and harassment are serious issues in schools that can influence a student’s ability to complete school and advance to higher education.
30% of youth in the United States (or over 5.7 million)1 are estimated to be involved in bullying as either a bully, a target of bullying, or both.
1Nansel et al. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth. JAMA.
Outcomes less than ideal (efficacy data is sparse -- many have evidence only that student knowledge of what to do improves, not that actual behavior changes)
Efficiency a major issue
Most do not target behavior of bystanders
Define, teach and reinforce school-wide behavior expectations.
Teach all students to identify and label disrespectful behavior.
Teach students a universal Stop Signal to use when they experience disrespectful behavior.
What to do as recipient
What to do as perpetrator
What to do as bystander
One Primary Lesson -- 50 minutes -- delivered to all students the same day
Class discussion of disrespectful behavior
Introduction of Stop Signal
Follow Up Lessons as needed
Gossip; Rumor Spreading
Coaching from supervisory personnel is ongoing and critical
If someone is bothering you, or someone else, deliver the “Stop Signal”.
Bystanders are asked to help by using the “Stop Signal” or by taking the victim away from the situation if they see someone else being harassed, teased, or treated disrespectfully.
If disrespectful behavior continues after the stop signal is delivered, walk away and/or report to an adult
When problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response:
Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm glad you told me.")
Ask who, what, when and where.
Ensure the student’s safety.
Is the problem still happening?
Assess severity of the incident
Assess likelihood of retaliation
Devise Safety Plan if needed
Ask the Student if he/she Used the Stop Signal -- Coach as needed
If the problem behavior included harassment or physical assault, complete an Office Discipline Referral and turn in to office
For chronic offenders, implement a reminder, warning, consequencecorrection sequence (timeout on the bench or an office referral, depending severity/frequency) in addition to the previously described coaching steps
For chronic victims of bullying or harassment
On a regular basis, an adult should check in with students to determine if the problem behaviors have ceased.
Continue to reinforce students for confiding and seeking assistance
Incidents of Problem Behavior at Recess
Contextual fit -- get student input on which hand signal students like best
Re-teach/prompt on a regular basis -- students needs lots of reminder to use the Stop Signal, especially in context
Cumulative effect is likely if the program is implemented over a period of several years and becomes more of a standard feature of the school culture
Pilot study designed by 4J School District to assess harassment and bullying in schools
24 questions about different types of harassment; where & when bullying occur; available resources and problem-solving strategies
1581 students assessed from 4 schools in spring 2009
1 high school (Churchill); 3 middle schools (Spencer Butte, Kelly, Roosevelt)
*Data reported by percent of responses.
Pilot implementation at 4J Middle School
Student input: “This will be lame if we let the adults do it”
Student taught lessons with adult facilitation
End of year Focus Group
Steps for recipients need to be different for middle school students because reporting is plain old not going to happen
Interrupting behaviors have to be more elegant and age appropriate (e.g. “I expect respect” v. “Stop”) Students choose the interrupting behavior
Need for ongoing dialogue
Only when there is danger of someone being hurt is it appropriate (from their point of view) to report
Hand signal paired with verbal
Role plays more directed; specific
Adult driven strategies for interrupting disrespect and for resolving conflicts
One primary lesson
Most incidents resolved with one or two adult contacts
Interruption behaviors more developmentally advanced with multiple options
More sophisticated role plays
Strategies for interrupting disrespect are student driven
8 primary lessons including student forums
More emphasis on continuing dialogue and follow throughDifferences -- Stop/Walk/Talk v. Expect Respect
8 contacts with students throughout the year
4 Adult-lead Lessons: Mix of discussion and experiential lessons (“Getting on the Bus; You-Tube vignettes)
4 Student forums: All students invited, open forum with a lesson or topic for discussion, “take-away” point to share with classes