Warm-up for 02.07.12Whatever happened to… Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens? • 1 guess per person above
CSA President Jefferson Davis Under Arrest Captured on May 10, 1865 in Irwinville, GA. He was held as a prisoner for two years in Fort Monroe, Virginia. Afterwards, he enjoyed the retiree lifestyle - he was president of an insurance company, wrote several books, and traveled overseas.
CSA Vice President Alexander Stephens Under Arrest Stephens was arrested at his home in Crawfordville, on May 11, 1865. He was imprisoned in Fort Warren (MA) for five months until October 1865. He then served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia and as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
Effects of President Johnson’s Plan C • Many Southern state constitutions did not meet minimum requirements, and President Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. 1. Pardoned, wealthy planters in charge before the Civil War were re-elected and in control of state government again! EFFECT? • With these wealthy, white, Southern Democrats back in power, there is a revival of southern defiance and the creation of BLACK CODES!
Was Georgia one of these states? Yes and no…
The GA Constitutional Convention of 1865 • President Johnson appointed James Johnson as Georgia’s provisional governor. A Constitutional Convention was held, and the representatives voted to abolish slavery and repeal the ordinance of secession. • Elections were held in November 1865 for a new legislature. It was full of white Southern Democrats from before the war. I’M BACK!
C Black Codes • Black Codes were laws passed by former Confederate states to keep whites in power and freedmen from having the same rights as whites. • Didn’t allow blacks: the same jobs as whites, the right to vote, the right to marry a white person, or the right to testify or serve on a jury. • Blacks could be: whipped as punishment, forced to work from sunrise to sunset six days per week, or put in jail if they didn’t have a job.
Report on the killing of freedmen “The number of murders and assaults perpetrated upon Negroes is very great; we can form only an approximate estimate of what is going on in those parts of the South which are not closely garrisoned, and from which no regular reports are received, by what occurs under the very eyes of our military authorities. As to my personal experience, I will only mention that during my two days sojourn at Atlanta, one Negro was stabbed with fatal effect on the street, and three were poisoned, one of whom died. While I was at Montgomery, one negro was cut across the throat evidently with intent to kill, and another was shot, but both escaped with their lives. Several papers attached to this report give an account of the number of capital cases that occurred at certain places during a certain period of time. It is a sad fact that the perpetration of those acts is not confined to that class of people which might be called the rabble. Carl Schurz, "Report on the Condition of the South", December 1865 (U.S. Senate Exec. Doc. No. 2, 39th Congress, 1st session).
C 14th Amendment Oh no, you didn’t! • Radical Republicans were outraged at the creation of black codes, so Congress passed the 14th Amendment in June1866. • It grantedcitizenship to all freedmen & black men could now vote! • Said the federal government had the power to intervene any time civil rights were taken from freedmen.
C Well, what do you think happened next? • Georgia and most of the other southern states refused. • Congress abolished these states’ governments and put them under military rule. • Georgia was ruled by General John Pope. • Pope was required to register all male voters – black and white. These voters would elect new representatives to form a new state government.
Military Reconstruction Acts of 1867 • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts. • Required new state constitutions, includingblack voting rights and ratification of the 13th & 14th Amendments.
Constitutional Convention of 1867 • Because GA refused to ratify the 14th amendment, GA had to go through military reconstruction in 1867, and General Pope registered Georgia's eligible white voters (95,214) and black voters (93,457). • Delegates were elected to create a new state constitution. Delegates were mainly carpetbaggers (northerners who had moved south), scalawags (southerners who sided with the Republicans), and blacks. • Accomplishments of the Convention: • A new constitution ensuring civil rights for all citizens; • Free public education for all children; • Women were allowed to control their own property. • Georgia now satisfied Congress, so General Pope and his troops left the state.
Henry McNeal… C African Americans in Politics • The election of 1867 was the first time African Americans had voted. • Several African Americans were elected to Georgia’s General Assembly including Rev. Henry McNeal Turner.
Henry McNeal… C African Americans in Politics • However, the African Americans elected to the General Assembly were expelled in 1868. • It was argued by whites that civil rights laws gave blacks the right to vote but not to be elected.
The “Invisible Empire of the South”
The “Invisible Empire of the South”
C Ku Klux Klan • From the Greek “Kuklos” meaning never ending circle • Secret organization – originally started as a social club for men returning from the war. • Members hid behind robes and masks, and the group terrorized blacks to keep them from voting (disenfranchisement) • As a result, Congress passed “The Georgia Act” and sent troops back to Georgia. • The act required Georgia to pass the 15th Amendment giving all males the right to vote.
C 15th Amendment • Ratified in 1870. • Said that citizens’ right to vote could not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote at the same time!