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  2. INFINITE SEQUENCES AND SERIES In section 11.9, we were able to find power series representations for a certain restricted class of functions.

  3. INFINITE SEQUENCES AND SERIES Here, we investigate more general problems. • Which functions have power series representations? • How can we find such representations?

  4. INFINITE SEQUENCES AND SERIES 11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series In this section, we will learn: How to find the Taylor and Maclaurin Series of a function and to multiply and divide a power series.

  5. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 1 We start by supposing that f is any function that can be represented by a power series

  6. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Let’s try to determine what the coefficients cnmust be in terms of f. • To begin, notice that, if we put x = a in Equation 1, then all terms after the first one are 0 and we get: f(a) = c0

  7. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 2 By Theorem 2 in Section 11.9, we can differentiate the series in Equation 1 term by term:

  8. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Substitution of x =a in Equation 2 gives: f’(a) = c1

  9. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 3 Now, we differentiate both sides of Equation 2 and obtain:

  10. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Again, we put x = a in Equation 3. • The result is: f’’(a) = 2c2

  11. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Let’s apply the procedure one more time.

  12. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 4 Differentiation of the series in Equation 3 gives:

  13. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Then, substitution of x =a in Equation 4 gives: f’’’(a) = 2 · 3c3 = 3!c3

  14. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES By now, you can see the pattern. • If we continue to differentiate and substitute x =a, we obtain:

  15. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Solving the equation for the nth coefficient cn, we get:

  16. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES The formula remains valid even for n = 0 if we adopt the conventions that 0! = 1 and f (0) = (f). • Thus, we have proved the following theorem.

  17. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Theorem 5 If f has a power series representation (expansion) at a, that is, if then its coefficients are given by:

  18. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 6 Substituting this formula for cn back into the series, we see that if f has a power series expansion at a, then it must be of the following form.


  20. TAYLOR SERIES The series in Equation 6 is called the Taylor series of the function f at a (or about a or centered at a).

  21. TAYLOR SERIES Equation 7 For the special case a = 0, the Taylor series becomes:

  22. MACLAURIN SERIES Equation 7 This case arises frequently enough that it is given the special name Maclaurin series.

  23. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES The Taylor series is named after the English mathematician Brook Taylor (1685–1731). The Maclaurin series is named for the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin (1698–1746). • This is despite the fact that the Maclaurin series is really just a special case of the Taylor series.

  24. MACLAURIN SERIES Maclaurin series are named after Colin Maclaurin because he popularized them in his calculus textbook Treatise of Fluxions published in 1742.

  25. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Note We have shown that if, f can be represented as a power series about a, then f is equal to the sum of its Taylor series. • However, there exist functions that are not equal to the sum of their Taylor series. • An example is given in Exercise 70.

  26. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Example 1 Find the Maclaurin series of the function f(x) = exand its radius of convergence.

  27. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Example 1 If f(x) = ex, then f (n)(x) = ex. So,f (n)(0) = e0 = 1 for all n. • Hence, the Taylor series for f at 0 (that is, the Maclaurin series) is:

  28. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES To find the radius of convergence, we let an =xn/n! • Then, • So, by the Ratio Test, the series converges for all x and the radius of convergence is R = ∞.

  29. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES The conclusion we can draw from Theorem 5 and Example 1 is: • If exhas a power series expansion at 0, then

  30. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES So, how can we determine whether exdoes have a power series representation?

  31. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Let’s investigate the more general question: • Under what circumstances is a function equal to the sum of its Taylor series?

  32. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES In other words, if f has derivatives of all orders, when is the following true?

  33. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES As with any convergent series, this means that f(x) is the limit of the sequence of partial sums.

  34. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES In the case of the Taylor series, the partial sums are:

  35. nTH-DEGREE TAYLOR POLYNOMIAL OF f AT a Notice that Tnis a polynomial of degree n called the nth-degree Taylor polynomial of f at a.

  36. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES For instance, for the exponential functionf(x) = ex, the result of Example 1 shows that the Taylor polynomials at 0 (or Maclaurin polynomials) with n = 1, 2, and 3 are:

  37. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES The graphs of the exponential function and those three Taylor polynomials are drawn here.

  38. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES In general, f(x) is the sum of its Taylor series if:

  39. REMAINDER OF TAYLOR SERIES If we let Rn(x) = f(x) – Tn(x) so that f(x) = Tn(x) + Rn(x) then Rn(x) is called the remainder of the Taylor series.

  40. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES If we can somehow show that , then it follows that: • Therefore, we have proved the following.

  41. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES Theorem 8 If f(x) = Tn(x) + Rn(x), where Tnis the nth-degree Taylor polynomial of f at aand for |x –a| < R, then f is equal to the sum of its Taylor series on the interval |x –a| < R.

  42. TAYLOR & MACLAURIN SERIES In trying to show that for a specific function f, we usually use the following fact.

  43. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY Theorem 9 If |f(n+1)(x)| ≤M for |x –a| ≤d, then the remainder Rn(x) of the Taylor series satisfies the inequality

  44. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY To see why this is true for n = 1, we assume that |f’’(x)| ≤M. • In particular, we have f’’(x) ≤M. • So,for a ≤ x ≤ a + d, we have:

  45. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY • An antiderivative of f’’ is f’. • So,by Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC2), we have: f’(x) – f’(a) ≤M(x –a)or f’(x) ≤f’(a) + M(x –a)


  47. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY • However, R1(x) = f(x) – T1(x) = f(x) – f(a) – f’(a)(x –a) • So,

  48. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY • A similar argument, using f’’(x) ≥ -M, shows that: • So,

  49. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY • We have assumed that x >a. • However,similar calculations show that this inequality is also true for x <a.

  50. TAYLOR’S INEQUALITY This proves Taylor’s Inequality for the case where n = 1. • The result for any n is proved in a similar way by integrating n + 1 times. • See Exercise 69 for the case n = 2