According to Frederick Henry, ‘The world breaks everyone’. How is this view explored in A Farewell to Arms? The inevitability of mortality/death(‘dirty trick’) Pessimistic view of life – sees the world as trying to destroy, crush an individual Cruelty of life Characters are damaged/broken by their experiences, particularly war
According to Frederick Henry, ‘The world breaks everyone’. How is this view explored in A Farewell to Arms? EXAMPLES – Events/Quotes “the dirty trick” Carabinieri – paranoia, killing countrymen as traitors “I cannot hope” – Priest. Breaks faith and spirituality Conversation among soldiers “What’s defeat anyway? You get to go home” Rinaldi’ssyphillis Henry walks back to the hotel ‘in the rain’ Catherine’s death and the death of the unborn baby (tragic irony. Catherine able to survive so much and killed when trying to give life) Still dies despite her separation from the war. “[The world] kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially” Personal strength Catherine’s actions – aimed at helping others. Selfless and yet still killed
Frederic Henry tells Catherine: ‘We’re both brave’, but Catherine is the braver of the two. Discuss. Bravery connected with survival. Need to consider the context (Histories, War considered to be the epitome of bravery and honour, Attitudes towards marriage – conservative society) Catherine defies the expectations of society in regards to women. Strong enough to be independent
Frederic Henry tells Catherine: ‘We’re both brave’, but Catherine is the braver of the two. Discuss. Unlike Henry, Catherine doesn’t fear death. Consoles Henry during her pregnancy Catherine has experienced more grief and has more to lose by entering the relationship Frederic is not fearful of anything therefore, her has no reason to be brave Henry’s desertion of the army more about personal needs. Survival based Henry doesn’t believe in his own bravery. Doesn’t want the recognition (medals)
How does Nowra use stage instructions and dialogue to explore elements of the characters’ personalities? Henry – doesn’t interact with other characters, a mute, paralysed arm which changes, a pushover – stands up to leave, obediently sits when directed to by others. Changes with his reaction to Nick. Outburst, stutter – uncertain about himself, lacking in confidence, gradually becomes more fluent The light – darkness and light symbolic of character’s attitudes towards the patients Doug’s tone (makes people uncomfortable, invades their personal space, inquisitive, makes inappropriate comments and asks personal and inappropriate questions Roy’s sense of humour/sarcasm. Source of personal protection since he has been abandoned and rejected his whole life Lewis interaction with patients – changes from uncertain and hesitant brief responses to more detailed and in depth conversations. Zac – catatonic state made overt through stage directions
How does Nowra use stage instructions and dialogue to explore elements of the characters’ personalities? The dialogue of characters is demonstrative of their socio-economic standing. Lewis starts to take on the phrasing of patients.
Nowra challenges the idea of madness in Cosi. Discuss Ironically the ‘insane’ patients offer clearer views on issues within society than the more ‘intellectually aware’ characters . Challenges the stereotypical attitudes the public have towards madness – Lewis mistaken as a patient, Roy mistaken as a social worker, Lewis’ developing understanding of patients Nowra questions the prevailing definition of madness given the histories if the patients Anyone is susceptible to madness.