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  2. CONTENTS PAGE • What are Adaptations? Page 3 • Structural Adaptations Page 4 • Behavioral Adaptations Page 5 • How is food found? Page 6 • Defense Page 7 • Camouflage Page 8 • Insulating and conducting Page 9 • Moving on land Page 10 • Moving in water Page 12 • Flying Page 13 • Breathing in water Page 14 • Adapting to low light Page 15 • Plants in low light environment Page 16 • Acknowledgement Page 17

  3. What are Adaptations? • The environments where plants and animals live can be • very different. Some may be able to live in desserts while • others might not. Others might be able to survive in snow • While others might not. How is this possible? This is due • to Adaptations. An adaptation is a characteristic that an • organism has evolved that helps it to survive in its • environment. There are two main types of adaptations. • They are: • Structural adaptation • Behavioral adaptation

  4. Structural Adaptations Structural adaptations are body parts that an organism has that helps it to survive. It could be the insulating fur of a Siberian Husky or the webbed feet of a Duck. Plants also have structural adaptations.

  5. BehavioralAdaptations Behavioral adaptations are the ways that an organism behaves that helps it to survive. A millipede curls up when it is touched. Oxen form a circle around their young when predators are near. Behavioral adaptations can be learnt within an organism’s lifetime.

  6. How is food found? • All animals have some kind of adaptations to help them get the food they need to survive. • Examples: • Cheetah – It is able to run very fast and thus is able to catch its prey. • Echidna – It has a long and thin nose which makes it easy for them to burrow for ants. • Spiders – They have stick glands which enables them to spin sticky webs. • Pelican – Large spoon-shaped beak which alloows them to scoop food. • Woodpecker – they have strong sharp beaks to tear bark off trees. • etc. This is an Echidna.

  7. Defense... • Many animals and plants have special features to make it easy for them to escape from their preys. Some are covered with hard scales or plates . Others have spine or spikes on their bodies. Most of the animals stay together to protect themselves. • Examples : • Porcupine fish (Spines on the body) • Zebras (stay in group) • Anteater ( Body is covered with spine) Etc.

  8. Camouflage • Some animals blend so well with their surroundings that they cannot be seen or • recoganized easily. This adaptation is called camouflage. • Body covering of a single colour, not easily seen when surroundings are of that colour.: • Eg : • snow owl • Artic Fox ( white in winter ) Can you spot an insect? Yes, it is none other then a stick insect. Most of us were not able to see it as it is well camouflaged.

  9. Staying cool Keeping warm • Animals that live in hot places have certain ways to adapt to their surroundings. • Some animals dig holes, go inside and stay out of the sun. • Others are able to drink large amounts of water at one time. • Most dessert plants have shallow roots to absorb water rapidly. • Animals that live in cold environment are able to keep themselves warm. • They will have a layer of insulating fat and also a layer of thick fur covered by a layer of waterproof fur to keep themselves warm • Birds have also adapted to living in cold environment. They have feathers to help them keep warm. If it gets too cold they fly to warmer environments. This behavioral adaptation is called migration.

  10. Moving on Land Animals that move on land may have legs with powerful muscles to help them overcome the forces of gravity and friction. These forces oppose movement on land. Animals that move on land may also have modified feet. For example, the feet of the horse and the kangaroo are adapted to help these animals move on land. Animals with legs may move about by hopping, walking or running. Animals with no legs, eg snakes, are able to crawl or slither on land.They have adaptations to protect the lower part of their bodies, which experience friction as they drag along the ground.

  11. Moving in water Anything that moves in water experience a force called water resistance. It acts against the direction of movement, just like the force of friction on land. Aquatic animals have streamlined body shape to reduce the effects of water resistance. Aquatic animals may also have modified limbs like flippers and webbed feet. These help push the water back so the animal can move forward at a high speed.

  12. Adaptations on Flight • Have well developed wings • Have powerful flight muscles for flapping their wings • Are covered with feathers for warmth, allowing flight muscles to work properly • Feathers are light and strong, so ideal for wings • Have hollow, strong bones that are filled with air to reduce body weight • Streamlined body so can overcome air resistance. Eg : crow, sparrow, eagle, seagull, hawks, falcon, owl, duck Predatory birds such as eagles, falcons and hawks also have excellent eyesight. They can spot their prey from a very long distance away and then rapidly swoop down to capture it.

  13. Breathing in water Some aquatic animals are adapted to be able to take in dissolved oxygen from water. Some aquatic animals may live in water, but come up to the surface to take air. Some aquatic animals can live in water and on land. They are adapted to take in dissolved oxygen when in water, and breathe air when on land. Eg : Fishes, shrimp, frog tadpole, toad tadpole, dragonfly nymph ( Gills ) Eg : Leech, worms ( soft, thin skin that can take in dissolved oxygen ) Eg : Mosquito larva, water scorpion, water stick insect ( Air tube or breathing tube that sticks out above the water surface to take in air )

  14. Adapting to low light Nocturnal animals are animals that are asleep during the day and awake in the night. They have special adaptations which enables them to see at night. The retina in these nocturnal creatures are large to collect more light. Nocturnal animals have huge eyes. The eyes fill nearly half of these animal’s skull. The bad thing about this is that they are not able to move their eyes freely. To overcome this limited movement most nocturnal animal’s heads can be rotated 270 degrees.

  15. Plants Some plants may be in low light environments. For instance, in a rain forest, most of the light is absorbed by the top canopy layers. The plants on the rain forest floor have huge leaves which enables them to absorb more sunlight at one time. Most of them are able to grow on stems of other tall plants so as to reach higher areas in the rain forest where more light is available

  16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • Science Revision PSLE Guide • Encyclopedia (Animals in Action) • Explore Science • Everything you must know to pass Science • Score in Science

  17. Thank you for your attention!!! Done by: Gayathiri Cindy Jaishree