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Kohlberg and Erikson. Erikson: Self-Esteem and Self-Concept. Stages of Self-Esteem and Self-concept. 1. Foreclosure No identity crisis. We are who are parents say we are. . 2. Identity Diffusion Not even examining identity. boys are slower to reach this stage. 3. Moratorium

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stages of self esteem and self concept
Stages of Self-Esteem and Self-concept

1. Foreclosure

No identity crisis. We are who are parents say we are.

2. Identity Diffusion

Not even examining identity.

boys are slower to reach this stage.

3. Moratorium

Examine alternative life choices.

Look to different peer groups.

secondary education
Secondary Education
  • Deals with Stages 3 and 4.
  • In adolescence, friends are most important part of lives.
    • Emotional, homework, cognitive, social
popular kids
Popular Kids
  • Smart
  • Good looking
  • Good behavior-personality
      • Reinforce good behavior
      • Model good behavior
      • Coach (explain why something is right.)
middle school kids
Middle School Kids
  • Moving to abstract stage.
  • Difficult for teachers because they have been in abstract stage for many years.
self concept vs self esteem

How we see ourselves


How we judge what we see

Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem
how do we help students with self concept and self esteem
How do we help students with self-concept and self-esteem?
  • Pre- and post- tests
  • Grade should reflect criteria, not behavior
  • Tracking should be eliminated.
  • Competition should not just be for the most abled to win.
girls and 7th grade
Girls and 7th Grade
  • Lose their self-esteem
  • Social self is much more important than academic self.
  • Easily influenced by magazines: thin, pretty
collective self esteem
Collective Self-Esteem
  • Poor kids, dumb kids, the immigrants
  • As a group they emote low self-esteem
  • Need to include their culture, customs, skills, attitudes, and knowledge
  • Need to eliminate Group Think
why is cooperative learning effective
Why is cooperative learning effective?
  • Share attitudes and values
  • Realize people are different
  • Learn to come to consensus and understanding
what about the kids on the fringe
What about the kids on the fringe?
  • Child abuse--must be reported
  • IST (Instructional Support Team)
  • SAP (Student Assistance Program)
  • Suicidal
what would you do
What would you do?
  • Page 66 in textbook.
over the edge worksheet
Over the Edge Worksheet
  • In groups of 3, rank each of the 15 statements on the handout, using one of these 3 categories:
    • No sweat
    • Seriously annoying
    • Tragic
  • You have 10 minutes!

1. Are you surprised to see how different people rank these situations?

2. Were there situations you considered “no sweat,” but others viewed as “tragic”?

3. How would you describe the discrepancies between different groups’ ratings?

4. Do situations deserve a different rating if they are a one-time only event?

lawrence kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg

Stages of Moral Development

level 1 pre conventional
Level 1: Pre-Conventional
  • Individuals make decisions based on others’ rules and personal needs. There is no consideration between right and wrong. The individual makes judgments based on whether they may be punished for breaking a rule or rewarded for keeping a rule.
level 1 example
Level-1 Example

Tom finds a wallet with the address of the owner inside but decides to keep the money because he figures no one will ever know who took the money and he could really use it to pay his bills.

level 2 conventional
Level 2: Conventional

Individuals make decisions based on need for others’ approval, family expectations, traditional values, the laws of society, and loyalty to country.

level 2 example
Level-2 Example

Tom finds a wallet with the address of the owner inside and returns the wallet, because to keep the wallet would be breaking the law.

level 2
Level 2

Judgments are made in consideration of whether or not loved ones and legal structures deem the actions to be right or wrong and whether the individual also subscribes to these beliefs.

level 2 example25
Level-2 Example

Tommy, a member of the Bloods, breaks the Johnny’s leg because he crossed over onto Bloods’ turf.

level 3 post conventional
Level 3: Post-Conventional

Judgments based on belief in socially agreed upon standards of individual right similar to the constitution.

Judgments based on individual conscience, involving abstract concepts of justice, human dignity, and equality

level 3 example
Level-3 Example
  • Tom finds a wallet with no address inside but places an ad in the newspaper in an effort to find the rightful owner because Tom believes it is the right thing to do.
level 3 reasoning
Level-3 Reasoning
  • Actions are driven more by personal morality than by any societial laws but when personal beliefs take precedence over the laws of society, there is a willingness to accept the consequences of one’s actions.
level 3 example29
Level-3 Example

During WWII many Germans hid the Jews instead of reporting their whereabouts to the Nazi regime.

issues with kohlberg s work
Issues With Kohlberg’s Work

1. Stages are not neatly divided. In reality, the context changes the reasoning.

Example: breaking law for self or others

2. All studies were conducted with Western males only.


Ethic of Care (Carol Gilligan)

Cultural Issues

today s children
Today’s Children
  • More will have one or no sibling
  • May be part of a blended family
  • May live with non-parent, one parent, or in foster home
  • 25% (under 18) will live with one parent, usually Mom
  • 70% of Moms with school-aged children are employed
  • Media and social pressure to grow up more quickly
divorce in u s one of highest in world
Divorce in U.S.:One of Highest in World
  • Loss of parent in residence
  • Loss of current home
  • Loss of friends, neighborhood, school
  • Loss of toys, trips, recreation
  • Loss of time with parent(s)
  • Gain of step-parent and siblings
  • Self-blame (especially first 2 years)
friendships and acceptance
Friendships and Acceptance
  • Adults who had friends as children have higher self-esteem.
  • Adults who had friends as children are more capable of maintaining intimate relationships.
  • Friends are important during difficult times such as parents’ divorce or transition to a new school.
  • Rejected children are more likely to drop out of school or commit crimes as adults.

1. Pressure to perform

2. Too lazy to study

3. Fear of failure

4. Parental pressure to do well

5. Minimal risk of being caught

6. Older and college-age males

7. Behind and failing

deter cheating by
Deter Cheating by:

1. Avoid putting students in high pressure situations.

2. Making sure students are well prepared for tests, assignments, etc.

3. Focusing on learning, not on grades.

4. Making extra help available.

5. Making rules about cheating known.

6. Learning good proctoring skills.

  • In your content-area group, discuss the situation on page 101 in your textbook.

Reflecting on the Chapter

Junior High gym issue