Kohlberg and Erikson. Erikson: Self-Esteem and Self-Concept. Stages of Self-Esteem and Self-concept. 1. Foreclosure No identity crisis. We are who are parents say we are. . 2. Identity Diffusion Not even examining identity. boys are slower to reach this stage. 3. Moratorium
No identity crisis. We are who are parents say we are.
Not even examining identity.
boys are slower to reach this stage.
Examine alternative life choices.
Look to different peer groups.
1. Are you surprised to see how different people rank these situations?
2. Were there situations you considered “no sweat,” but others viewed as “tragic”?
3. How would you describe the discrepancies between different groups’ ratings?
4. Do situations deserve a different rating if they are a one-time only event?
Stages of Moral Development
Tom finds a wallet with the address of the owner inside but decides to keep the money because he figures no one will ever know who took the money and he could really use it to pay his bills.
Individuals make decisions based on need for others’ approval, family expectations, traditional values, the laws of society, and loyalty to country.
Tom finds a wallet with the address of the owner inside and returns the wallet, because to keep the wallet would be breaking the law.
Judgments are made in consideration of whether or not loved ones and legal structures deem the actions to be right or wrong and whether the individual also subscribes to these beliefs.
Tommy, a member of the Bloods, breaks the Johnny’s leg because he crossed over onto Bloods’ turf.
Judgments based on belief in socially agreed upon standards of individual right similar to the constitution.
Judgments based on individual conscience, involving abstract concepts of justice, human dignity, and equality
During WWII many Germans hid the Jews instead of reporting their whereabouts to the Nazi regime.
1. Stages are not neatly divided. In reality, the context changes the reasoning.
Example: breaking law for self or others
2. All studies were conducted with Western males only.
Ethic of Care (Carol Gilligan)
1. Pressure to perform
2. Too lazy to study
3. Fear of failure
4. Parental pressure to do well
5. Minimal risk of being caught
6. Older and college-age males
7. Behind and failing
1. Avoid putting students in high pressure situations.
2. Making sure students are well prepared for tests, assignments, etc.
3. Focusing on learning, not on grades.
4. Making extra help available.
5. Making rules about cheating known.
6. Learning good proctoring skills.
Reflecting on the Chapter
Junior High gym issue