Imperial China Collapses Ch. 14.3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Imperial China Collapses Ch. 14.3

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  1. Imperial China CollapsesCh. 14.3

  2. The Qing Dynasty last ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912 Chinese Dynasties date back 4,000 years

  3. Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty In the early 1900s many Chinese wanted change in China. - They resented foreign nations’ control of China - Many Chinese wanted to modernize China Kuomintang—Nationalist Party of China—calls for modernization & an end to foreign control Sun Yixian—firstgreat leader of Nationalist Party • In 1911, Sun Yixian led the Nationalists in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty

  4. Shaky Start for the New Republic In 1912, Sun takes control as president • Sun backs three principles: 1. nationalism 2. democracy 3. economic security • Sun did not have the backing of the military, so Sun turns the presidency over to general Yuan Shikai • Yuan Shikai betrays to democratic ideals of the revolution. • No national agreement on rule; civil war breaks out in 1916 • Warlords take control of territories as large as their armies could conquer

  5. Shaky Start for the New Republic World War I Spells More Problems • China enters war against Germany hoping to gain land held by Germans • Treaty of Versailles gives German colonies in China to Japan • On May 4, 1919, angry students protest this agreement May Fourth Movement—nationalist movement that spreads across China • Many young nationalists turn to Lenin in Russia as an example to follow

  6. The Communist Party in China Rise of a New Leader • Mao Zedong—helps form Chinese Communist Party in 1921 Lenin Befriends China • In 1923, Lenin helps Nationalists, who agree to work with Communists Peasants Align with the Communists • Jiang Jieshi (Chang Kai Shek)—Nationalist leader (Kuomintang) after Sun dies—opposes communism • Peasants see no gain for them in Jiang’s plans, they back Communists

  7. Nationalists versus Communists

  8. The Communist Party in China Nationalists and Communists Clash • In 1927, Nationalists kill Communists, unionists in Shanghai • In 1928, Jiang becomes president; Communists resist his rule Civil War Rages in China between _________? Hostility Becomes War • By 1930, civil war rages; Mao recruits a peasant, guerrilla army

  9. Civil War Rages in China The Long March • In 1933, Jiang’s huge army surrounds outnumbered Communists Long March— Communists’ 6,000-mile journey to safety in north • Of 100,000 Communists, 7,000 or 8,000 survive the march, including Mao Civil War Suspended • Seeing chaos in China, Japan launches all-out invasion in 1937 • Nationalists and Communists join together to fight Japan *after WWII (1945), Communists and Nationalists resume their fighting. - In 1949, China becomes a Communist nation

  10. The Communists Transform China • Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven” • Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist Party • Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism • Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants • Government seizes private companies and plans production increase • “Little Red Book” was published by the Government of the People’s Republic of Chinafrom April 1964 until approximately 1976. As its title implies, it is a collection of quotations excerpted from Mao’s past speeches and publications