The New Deal Review. New Deal. FDR promised Americans a New Deal to combat the Depression Two parts to the plan: 1. The “ Hundred Days” 2. The Second New Deal. The “Hundred Days”. Launched programs to provide: RELIEF RECOVERY REFORM Essentially, sought to:
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FDR promised Americans a New Deal to combat the Depression
Two parts to the plan:
1.The “Hundred Days”
2.The Second New Deal
Launched programs to provide:
Essentially, sought to:
relieve the suffering of the GD
stimulate the economy
While I check your homework, use Chapter 23 Section 2 in your books, notes, and homework worksheets to write 2 paragraphs:
2. Criticize the New Deal from the perspective of a progressive socialist. Be as specific as you can.
Part 1 – Please answer questions as completely as possible.
1. What steps did FDR take during his first few months in office to reverse the trend of the Depression?
He restored confidence in banks, funded relief agencies, created jobs, tried to stabilize business process, and helped people keep their homes and farms.
2. How successful was the NRA?
For a while, the NRA codes stopped the nosedive of industrial prices, but it failed to keep the economy stable for more than a few months.
3. Who were FDR’s advisors, and what did they do?
Cabinet members, the “Brain Trust” of intellectuals who helped devise policies prior to FDR’s inauguration; Mary McCleod Bethune – advised on African American affairs; and Eleanor – who traveled to build support for the ND.
4. What caused the New Deal to falter?
Many worried that ND agencies gave unprecedented power to the federal government; the supreme court declared two key elements of the New Deal unconstitutional.
5. What were some important characteristics of the Second New Deal programs?
It included more social welfare benefits, stricter controls over business, stronger support for unions, and higher taxes for the rich.
6. What did FDR’s landslide victory in 1936 presidential election reveal about Americans’ response to the ND?
The majority supported his relief, recovery and reform measures.
Part 2 - Provide a complete definition:
New Deal – Program of Relief, Recovery and reform aimed at combating the GD
Hundred Days – period in 1933 when FDR pushed many ND programs through congress
Public Works Programs – government funded projects which provided jobs, built public facilities
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – Public works project providing hydro-electric power and flood control to the TN River valley
Second New Deal – New burst of legislative activities initiated by FDR in 1935 in part responding to critics of the ND
Wagner Act – labor relations law which legalized practices like collective bargaining and closed shops, encouraged / protected union membership
Social Security system – government system for providing regular payments to people who could not support themselves
Part 1 - Complete the outline:
1. Though the ND helped many people during the GD, some groups of Americans benefited little, if at all.
A. The Fair Labor Standards Act actually covered less than a quarter of employed workers, most already earned more than the Act mandated.
B. The NRA codes permitted lower wages for women’s work in a quarter of all cases.
C. African Americans faced economic discrimination in both the North and the South.
2.Americans criticized Roosevelt’s New Deal both for doing too much and for not doing enough.
A. Wealthy people, mainly Republicans, considered some New Deal programs to be socialistic.
B. The American Liberty League charged New Deal programs with limiting individual freedom.
C. Socialists called for a new economic system based on government takeover of farms, factories, etc.
3.Roosevelt tried to “pack” the Supreme Court with justices who favored the New Deal, but he was unsuccessful.
A. Roosevelt submitted a court reform bill in hopes of raising the number of justices in order to create a majority in favor of the New Deal programs.
B. Critics attacked Roosevelt’s idea as negligent of separation of powers, trying to “inject” his politics into the judiciary.
C. FDR is forced to withdraw his bill, but nonetheless continues to earn support for parts of the New Deal within the judiciary.
Part 2 - Explain each term as completely as possible:
American Liberty League- Spearheaded much of the opposition to the New Deal, calling its limits on individual freedom unconstitutional and un-American.
Demagogue- Leaders such as Father Charles E. Coughlin and Huey Long attacked FDR and his ND programs, promoting their own radical ideas for ending the GD by building popular support.
Nationalization- Father Coughlin advocated nationalizing banks and redistribution of their wealth.
Part 1 - Provide two sentences in support of each main idea:
1. The New Deal did not “cure” the GD.
After some temporary economic improvement, the economy collapsed again in August 1937.Unemployment rose and industrial production fell.
2. The New Deal had a significant impact on labor unions.
Federal protections for unions under the Wagner Act made union membership more attractive. Union membership rose from ~3 million in 1933 to more than 10 million in 1941.
3. Radio and movies became popular forms of family entertainment during the 1930’s.
Radio comedy shows produced such stars as Jack Benny, George Burns, and Gracie Allen. Movies such as the Wizard of Oz distracted viewers from the gloom of the GD.
4. Government projects helped to support writers, artists, musicians, and others during the Depression.
The Federal Writers’ Project assisted more than 6,000 writers. The Federal Art Project gave thousands of artists work.
5. The New Deal had many lasting effects
Durable bridges, dams, tunnels, public buildings, and hospitals were constructed. Federal agencies such as the TVA, FDIC, and SEC have all endured.
Part 2 - Provide a definition for each of the following terms:
National debt –
Total amount of money the federal government has borrowed and has yet to pay back
Revenue – income
Coalition – alliance of groups with similar goals
Sit-Down strike – strikes in which laborers stop work but refuse to leave the workplace