The Battle of Vicksburg The turning point of the US Civil War By Krysta McDaniel
GEOGRAPHY • Where the battle of Vicksburg was located: - Warren County, Mississippi. Northwest of New Orleans on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. West of the capital, Jackson. (Directly in the middle of the Confed) • Where the Battles of Champion Hill and Big Black were located: - Hinds County, Mississippi
KEY LEADERS - Lincoln (Union Pres) - Davis (Confed Pres) - Grant (Union major General) - Pemberton (Confed major General)
PHASES • Champions Hill – The decision battle for Vicksburg started early in the morning on Sat, May 16th, 1863. General Pemberton, the confed commander, put his divisions along the ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. He didn't know that there was an unprotected flank on Champion Hill that was being pushed. Once they were aware, the Confed troops were shifted to the left to try and protect the crossroads. The battle started. General Grant, with the union, ordered his men to move forward on Jackson Road. By noon, the feds has stormed in on the confeds main line of resistance, the battle kept on. The Union drive captured the crossroads and stopped the Jackson escape route. Although the Confeds drove the Feds back and re-gained control, they faltered and did not win. Confed resistance was shattered, and the Confed army was ordered off the field.
Big Black – After their defeat from Champion Hill, the Confeds retreated west and hit the Big Black River bridge. In attempt to halt the union, brigades were ordered to block the Union. The Union advanced toward them. The Confeds were expecting them, and quickly made a line of defense along the banks, using their knowledge of the bridge. Firing with canons began and the Confeds were overwhelmed. They again retreated, Grant was quoted saying "the assault was successful. But little resistance was made. The enemy fled from the west bank of the river, burning the bridge behind him and leaving the men and guns on the east side to fall into our hands. Many tried to escape by swimming the river. Some succeeded and some were drowned in the attempt."
Vicksburg – On May 18th, 1963 - July 4, 1863 the Battle of Vicksburg was fought. The Union General Grant and his and his army crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confed army of Pemberton into defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Grant besieged the city until it surrendered (47 days), which in turn yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union. The western Confed was now completely isolated from the eastern Confed. With all of it's connections to railroads and ports, so long as it was held by the Union, the free navigation of the river was prevented. As it was a verily significant port along the banks of the Mississippi River, the Union army was able to block the way through which the Confederate troops transported goods, supplies and even human resources.
TECHNOLOGY • Industrial Revolution fostered great changes • The Union was more advanced that the Confed (made greater and more effective use of progress in transportation, military medicine, and field artillery) • Both the North and the South made use of advances in railroad and river transportation • The submarine, the flame thrower, land mines, grenades, observation balloons, iron hulled warships, and repeating guns. • Rifled musket (tripled the effective range of the common soldier and could repetitively reload) and the Minie Ball bullet
STRATEGIES • The Anaconda Plan was drawn up by Winfield Scott to end the Civil War in favor of the Union. The plan was adopted in 1862, involving 4 main parts: 1. Blockade the coast of the South to prevent the export of cotton, tobacco, and other cash crops from the South and to keep them from importing much needed war supplies. 2. Divide the South by controlling the Mississippi River to cut the South off from the west. 3. Divide the South by capturing the Tennessee River Valley and marching through Georgia to the coast. 4. Capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.
AFTER • With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half.
Where does my Confed soldier, James Crookshanks, come into this? - He fought at Champion Hill, Big Black, and died during the siege of Vicksburg.
Works cited • "Battle of Big Black River Bridge." Official Site: The Battle of Champion Hill (May 16, 1863). Web. 20 Jan. 2010. <http://www.battleofchampionhill.org/history/big-black.htm>. • "The Battle of Champion Hill." Official Site: The Battle of Champion Hill (May 16, 1863). Web. 20 Jan. 2010. <http://www.battleofchampionhill.org/battle.htm>. • "Civil War and Industrial and Technological Advances | Americans at War: 1816-1900 Summary." BookRags.com: Book Summaries, Study Guides. Web. 20 Jan. 2010. <http://www.bookrags.com/research/civil-war-and-industrial-and-techno-aaw-02/>. • "Technology in the Civil War." Emory Hackman. Web. 20 Jan. 2010. <http://www.hackman-adams.com/guns/Technology.htm>.