vicksburg n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vicksburg PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Vicksburg

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Vicksburg - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 333 Views
  • Uploaded on

Vicksburg. Champion Hill and Big Black. Results of the Battle of Jackson May 14, 1863. Grant neutralized Jackson militarily: burned the machine shops and factories cut telegraph lines destroyed railroad tracks Jackson became known as “Chimneyville”

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Vicksburg' - Mercy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
vicksburg

Vicksburg

Champion Hill and Big Black

results of the battle of jackson may 14 1863
Results of the Battle of JacksonMay 14, 1863
  • Grant neutralized Jackson militarily:
    • burned the machine shops and factories
    • cut telegraph lines
    • destroyed railroad tracks
    • Jackson became known as “Chimneyville”
  • With Vicksburg isolated, Grant begins his move west
decisive point
Decisive Point
  • One of those facets of the operational art we talked about on Day 2
  • “A geographic place, specific key event, or enabling system that allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an enemy and greatly influence the outcome of an attack.”
    • FM 3-0
champion hill as the decisive point
Champion Hill as the Decisive Point
  • Vicksburg National Military Park website calls Champion Hill “The decisive engagement of the Vicksburg campaign” and concludes that “victory at Champion Hill guaranteed the success of [Grant’s] campaign.”
    • http://www.nps.gov/vick/vcmpgn/chmpnhl.htm
  • “The drums of Champion Hill sounded the doom of Richmond.”
    • Major General J.F.C. Fuller, Military Historian.
champion hill as the decisive point1
Champion Hill as the Decisive Point
  • After Champion Hill, “the South could no longer win the war through their own generals’ initiative… Champion Hill reduced Confederate president Jefferson Davis to reliance upon Union bungling or Northern war weariness to confer Southern independence. If a decisive battle is defined as one in which a nation fatally wounds its foe, Champion Hill was indeed a decisive engagement.”
    • James Arnold, Grant Wins the War, 1-2
unity of effort and objective
Unity of Effort and Objective?
  • Johnston’s concept
    • Leave Edward’s Station and attack Federals at Clinton
  • Pemberton’s concept
    • Johnston’s plan too dangerous and conflicts with President Davis’ order to defend Vicksburg
    • Decides to attack supply trains instead
  • But remember from Day 4, Grant had decided to “cut loose from my base, destroy the rebel force in rear of Vicksburg or invest or capture the city.”
impact of logistics
Impact of Logistics
  • “I naturally expected that Pemberton would endeavor to obey the orders of his superior, which I have shown were to attack us at Clinton. This, indeed, I knew he could not do; but I felt sure he would make the attempt to reach that point. It turned out, however, that he had decided his superior’s plans were impracticable, and consequently determined to move south from Edward’s station and get between me and my base. I, however, had no base, having abandoned it more than a week before.”
    • Grant, Memoirs
battle begins
Battle Begins
  • Grant receives word Pemberton is at Edwards Station preparing to march east
    • Grant advances west from Bolton and Raymond on three parallel columns
  • At about 7:00 am Union forces engage Confederates
  • Battle of Champion Hill begins
the terrain
The Terrain
  • “Champion’s Hill, where Pemberton had chosen his position to receive us, whether taken by accident or design, was well selected. It is one of the highest points in that section, and commanded all the ground in range. On the east side of the ridge, which is quite precipitous, is a ravine running first north, then westerly, terminating at Baker’s Creek. It was grown up thickly with large trees and undergrowth, making it difficult to penetrate with troops, even when not defended. The ridge occupied by the enemy terminated abruptly where the ravine turns westerly. The left of the enemy occupied the north end of this ridge. The Bolton and Edward’s station wagon-road turns almost due south at this point and ascends the ridge, which it follows for about a mile; then turning west, descends by a gentle declivity to Baker’s Creek, nearly a mile away. ”
    • Grant, Memoirs
oakoc
OAKOC
  • Obstacles
    • “On the east side of the ridge, which is quite precipitous, is a ravine running first north, then westerly, terminating at Baker’s Creek”
  • Avenues of approach
    • “The Bolton and Edward’s station wagon-road turns almost due south at this point and ascends the ridge…”
  • Key terrain
    • “one of the highest points in that section”
  • Observation and fields of fire
    • “commanded all the ground in range”
  • Cover and concealment
    • “grown up thickly with large trees and undergrowth”
  • Good photos at Champion Hill Virtual Tour
    • http://www.civilwaralbum.com/vicksburg/ch_assault.htm
obstacles
Obstacles

Deep ravines such as this one cut throughout the area and disrupted Federal formations

avenues of approach
Avenues of Approach

The Jackson Road trace as it ascends Champion Hill.  From this point, the crest would be approximately 400 yards.

key terrain
Key Terrain

The crest of Champion Hill looking north.  At the time of the battle, this was the highest point on the battlefield.  Free of trees, the crest provided Confederates a commanding view of the entire area.

observation and fields of fire
Observation and Fields of Fire

View of the battlefield looking south from the Champion Hill Road, 1000 yards northwest of the crest of Champion Hill. The actual crest of Champion Hill would be hidden by the treeline near the middle of the picture.  

cover and concealment
Cover and Concealment

View from the Confederate line on Champion Hill. The thick cover served both Confederates and Federals well.

confederate forces
Confederate Forces
  • Defensive line focuses on Middle and Raymond Roads
  • Federals use Jackson Road, taking advantage of the unprotected Confederate left flank
    • Pemberton has to shift forces which creates a gap at the Crossroads
  • Failure of principle of war of security
federal forces
Federal Forces
  • Federals attack at 10:00 am and overtake Confederate defensive line by 1:00 pm
  • Capture Crossroads which closes the Jackson Road escape route
  • Confederates counterattack in insufficient numbers
  • Grant presses the attack
    • Tries to get McClernand to move forward and cut off the Confederate retreat, but McClernand, in spite of Grant’s sending “repeated orders by staff officers fully competent to explain to him the situation,” does not advance.
federal forces1
Federal Forces
  • Confederates retreat to only escape route still open (Raymond Road crossing of Baker’s Creek)
    • Tilghman dies acting as rear guard to cover the Confederate retreat
  • “Had McClernand come up with reasonable promptness, or had I known the ground as I did afterward, I cannot see how Pemberton could have escaped with any organized force.” (Grant, Memoirs)
  • At 8:00 pm Federals enter Edwards
decisive point1
Decisive Point
  • One of those facets of the operational art we talked about on Day 2
  • “A geographic place, specific key event, or enabling system that allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an enemy and greatly influence the outcome of an attack.”
    • FM 3-0
maneuver
Maneuver
  • As both an element of combat power and a principle of war, maneuver concentrates and disperses combat power to place and keep the enemy at a disadvantage. It includes the dynamic, flexible application of leadership, firepower, information, and protection as well.
    • Achieves results that would otherwise be more costly
    • Keeps enemies off balance by making them confront new problems and new dangers faster than they can deal with them.
was it the decisive point
Was it the Decisive Point?
  • Was Champion Hill the last chance for Confederates to avoid siege at Vicksburg?
  • How did Grant use maneuver to put the Confederates in a position of Federal advantage?
big black river
Big Black River
  • After its victory, the Federal Army rested until early in the morning of May 17
  • By now Sherman had arrived from Jackson, and Grant sent him and McPherson to cut off Pemberton’s retreat north of the railroad
  • McClernand moved to intercept the Confederates right where the railroad crossed the Big Black River

1864 photograph of the Big Black River battlefield

big black river1
Big Black River
  • Pemberton’s army was exhausted and they waited on the east side of the Big Black on the night of the 16th to gather the withdrawing forces
  • The wait proved costly
  • On May 17, McClernand struck the dejected Confederates who had their backs to the river
big black river2
Big Black River
  • Pemberton’s army managed to escape back to Vicksburg thanks to well placed infantry and artillery on the bluffs along the west bank of the river and the successful burning of the bridge
  • Pemberton beats Grant to the safety of the Vicksburg defenses
    • Grant arrives outside Vicksburg on May 18 and begins plans to assault the Confederate positions

The Civil War-era bridge over the Big Black was burned by the Confederates to prevent pursuit by Grant’s army. 

slide25
Next
  • Assaults on Vicksburg