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Age of Exploration. Chapter 14 and Chapter 15. Why?. Trade spices, silks, jade Moluccas- island chain known as the spice islands Curiosity Religion. Portugal. Prince Henry the Navigator Conversions, Muslim Riches, Asia Recruitment: Cartographers, sailors, ship builders, engineers

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age of exploration

Age of Exploration

Chapter 14 and Chapter 15

slide2
Why?
  • Trade
    • spices, silks, jade
    • Moluccas- island chain known as the spice islands
  • Curiosity
  • Religion
portugal
Portugal
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
    • Conversions, Muslim Riches, Asia
    • Recruitment: Cartographers, sailors, ship builders, engineers
    • Dies in 1460
  • Bartholomeu Dias
    • rounded Cape of Good Hope in 1488
  • Vasco da Gama
    • Voyage to Calicut in India
    • Imprisoned
    • Returns with minimal goods (300% profit)
    • Second Voyage to Calicut to force a treaty and leave merchants
christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus
  • Believed he could sail west and reach the East Indies
    • Portugal would not sponsor him
    • Ferdinand and Isabella did though
      • Spanish Inquisition forces Jews and many wealthy people out; seeking riches and prestige
    • First Voyage: Aug. 3, 1492  Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
    • Reach land Oct. 12
    • Total of 4 voyages
exploratory conflict
Exploratory Conflict
  • Line of Demarcation: split the globe
    • Pope Alexander VI
    • Spain gets west, Portugal gets East
    • Treaty of Tordesillas
other early explorers
Other Early Explorers
  • Amerigo Vespucci (Itl)
    • Journals voyage to Brazil
  • Martin Waldseemuller
    • Used Vespucci’s journals to map the “Americas”
  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa(Spain)
    • Helped by Indians to get through Panama
ferdinand magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
  • From Portugal
  • Set out with 5 ships from Spain
  • Reached S. Am. and explored every bay
  • Finally reaches southern tip  Strait of Magellan
    • Brutal Storms, Winds, and Tides
    • Renames South Sea Pacific
  • Crew wanted to return, Magellan wanted to continue
    • 3 wks to spice islands, took 4 months
  • Magellan is killed at the Philippines
  • Sept. 8, 1522  return with 1 ship and 18 sailors
  • 1st to Circumnavigate
exploration of africa
Exploration of Africa
  • Portugal sets up minor establishments along African Coast
    • Wish to cut out Middle men
    • African goods: gold, ivory, hides, slaves
    • Took over Mambasa and Malindi
    • Expelled Arabs
african slave trade
African Slave Trade
  • slavery has been around for thousands of years
  • Euro. Used slave labor for plantations
  • Plantation: large estates run by an owner or an owner’s overseer
  • slave raids by rulers and “companies”
african resistance
African Resistance
  • Affonso I, ruled Kongo
    • Had been tortured by Port. Missionaries
    • He asked Portugal to help develop Kongo
    • Results in overwhelming slave trade
    • Banned in some areas
african civilizations
African Civilizations
  • Asante Kingdom (Ghana)
    • Osei Tutu-military leader that took over
    • United area by claiming to be ruler through power of heaven
    • Created government based on merit
    • Monopolies on gold and slave trade
    • Played Europeans against each other
  • Oyo Empire
    • Forest kingdom composed of Yoruba people
    • Built army from slavery wealth
european expansion
European Expansion
  • British, Dutch, and French take over as Portugal declines
  • Establish colonies
  • Dutch build Cape Town at tip of Africa
    • First permanent European settlement
    • Boers settle around the area
    • Locals are killed off due to elitist views
europe in asia
Europe in Asia
  • Portuguese had a superior navy with better cannons
  • Alfonso de Albuquerque
    • Sailed to Asia
  • Mughal Empire – Muslim controlled lands in central Asia
  • Trading Outposts
    • 1510- Portuguese take Goa
    • Becomes a major mil./commercial base
    • 1511- Portugal takes Malacca = the Muslim city in East Indies
  • Outposts: distant areas under a country’s control
dutch exploration
Dutch Exploration
  • 1599- Dutch fleet returns successfully from Asia
  • Set up Cape Town
  • Dutch East India Company – group of wealthy Dutch merchants
    • had full sovereign powers
  • 1641- Dutch take Malacca
  • Use their military to create a monopoly on trade in the region
spanish exploration
Spanish Exploration
  • Took over the Philippines
  • Conquered and named after Phillip II
mughal india
Mughal India
  • Europeans allowed building forts
  • Empire shatters by corruption and power struggles
  • European companies raise armies
  • Eypoys – Indian troops
ming china
Europeans have inferior products

Chinese demand silver and gold

Macao (Guangzhou)

Portuguese trading post in China

Rules:

Trade only under supervision

Leave at the end of the trade season

Ming China
manchu conquest
Manchu Conquest
  • Manchu – Manchurians from NW China
  • Qing (ching) Dynasty
    • Adopted Confucianism
      • 2 rulers (1 Manchu/ 1 Chinese)
      • Local governments were maintained
      • Army station to ensure loyalty
manchu rulers
Manchu Rulers
  • Kangxi
    • Expanded empire, promoted Chinese culture
  • Qianlong
    • Kangxi’s grandson
    • Created largest Chinese empire in history
    • Retired after 60 years for grandfather’s sake
lord macartney
Diplomat

Brought sample products (Strike 1)

Refusal to bow meeting the emperor (Strike 2)

Discussions of the natural superiority of the English (Strike 3)

Lord Macartney
japan
Welcomed westerners at first

Use of European weapons may have stabilized the country

Japanese welcome Christianity and the printing press

Sources of fear:

Knew of Spanish take-over of Philippines

Christian allegiance

Japan
japan cont
Japan cont.
  • Missionaries kicked out
  • Japanese Christians persecuted and killed
  • Complete Isolation
    • Outlawed travel, large ship building
    • Allowed 1-2 Dutch ships in Nagasaki per year to keep informed