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Chapters 19-23. Brent Virtusio Janice Casiano Joseph Bassey Anthony Ong Mitchell Labasan. Chapter 19: Drifting Towards Disunion A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND. I BELIEVE THIS GOVERNMENT CANNOT ENDURE PERMANENTLY HALF SLAVE AND HALF FREE. ONE WORD: DIVISION

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chapters 19 23

Chapters 19-23

Brent VirtusioJanice CasianoJoseph BasseyAnthony OngMitchell Labasan




  • Kansas Territory erupted in violence between proslavery and antislavery factions in 1855. Then the civil war in Kansas erupted in 1856, later merged with the larger scale civil war of 1861-1865.
  • On March 6, 1857 the Dred Scott decision was made. Dred Scott was a slave who sued for freedom claiming to be on free sol but supreme court ruled that he couldn’t sue in federal courts because he was a slave not a citizen. This caused problems in Slavery for more than a generation and invalidated the Missouri compromise of 1820.
  • Abe Lincoln won the four way race for presidency in 1860 which caused South Carolina, Alabama , Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas seceded and met in Alabama in 1861 to create a government known as the Confederate States of America.

Chapter 20 : Girding of War : The North and the South, 1861-1865“I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon us, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.” Abraham Lincoln, May 7, 1861

One word : Separation

  • The North and the South secedes from the disputes amongst abolitionists and proslavery that are usually slaveholders. This brought to President Lincoln’s greatest conflict during his office, the Civil War.
  • Lincoln took the presidential oath of office on March 4, 1861 and he was president of America, not the United States.
  • Due to the seceding, the North was less fortunate n terms of military leaders and militia. 90% of the Union troops were volunteers resulting in women having newoppurtunities for women taking men’s occupations.
  • The South had to rely on British’s commerce as they buy 75% of their cotton supplies.

Chapter 21: The Furnace of Civil WarFUFILLING“My paramount object in this struggle s to save the Union, and is not to save or destroy slavery.” – Abraham Lincoln, 1862

  • This chapter, overall, had its many ups and downs. There were many things (wars, battles, bills, elections, etc.) following one after another that helped shaped America’s future for itself and it’s fellow Americans.
  • The Union was to be saved and made many transformations. Its power rested with the North.
  • In this chapter, slavery was officially banned which led to African Americans to claim their rights, life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
  • Nullification and secession, were finally over.
  • During this chapter, it mentions how post-Civil War affected the industrial growth, federal taxes, the army, and civil rights. With this said, Lincoln’s emancipation helped unite things during this time in history.
  • The Civil War was the test of America’s democracy; America has a long way to go to fulfill the lives of it’s fellow Americans.

Chapter 22:The Ordeal of Reconstruction“With Malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural, March 4, 1865

One Word : FAIL

  • Many white southerners regarded Reconstruction as a more grievous wound itself. It left a scar that would take generations to heal. They resented the upending of their social and racial system, political empowerment of blacks, and the insight of federal intervention in their local affairs.
  • The Republicans acted from a mixture of idealism and political expediency. They wanted to protect the freed slaves and to promote the fortunes of the Republican party. Their efforts turned out to be a fail, and it backfired. Reconstruction conferred only fleeting benefits on blacks and virtually extinguished the Republican party in the south for almost a hundred years.
  • Moderate republicans never fully appreciated the extensive effort necessary to make freed slaves completely independent citizens, nor the lengths to which Southern Whites would go to preserve their system of racial dominance. Although the Republicans good intentions, the Old South was mainly resurrected than reconstructed.
chapter 23 political paralysis in the gilded age 1869 1896
Chapter 23: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869-1896

The progress of evolution, from president Washington to President Grant, was alone evidence enough to upset Darwin… Grant… should have lived in a cave and worn skins.


  • Grant became president in 1868, and his term was full of all kinds of controversial scandals, such as the Tweed scandal and the Credit Mobilier scandal.
  • The Panic of 1873 and of 1893 left the country’s economy paralyzed.
  • A wave of new immigrants flooded into the country, specifically the Chinese. Ethnic and racial disputes also erupted because of this. Eventually, The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress prohibiting all further immigration from China.