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Cat’s Cradle. IMPORTANCE OF WATER. 1,360,000,000 cubic kilometers of water in the hydrosphere 70% of Earth’s surface Comprises 60-90% of all living organisms Key reactant in both synthetic and catabolic (i.e. breakdown) reactions. WHY WATER?.

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Importance of water
IMPORTANCE OF WATER

  • 1,360,000,000 cubic kilometers of water in the hydrosphere

  • 70% of Earth’s surface

  • Comprises 60-90% of all living organisms

  • Key reactant in both synthetic and catabolic (i.e. breakdown) reactions



The unique physical and chemical properties of water derive from its molecular structure
The unique physical and chemical properties of water derive from its molecular structure


Polar covalent bond
POLAR COVALENT BOND

  • Oxygen shares e- unevenly with hydrogen due to its higher electronegativity

  • As a result, the oxygen end of the molecule appears negatively charged while the hydrogen end appears positive




Adhesion
ADHESION POLAR COVALENT BONDING

  • Water molecules stick to other charged particles

  • Because water is adhesive it also has the properties of

    • Universal solvent

    • Capillary action


Universal solvent
UNIVERSAL SOLVENT POLAR COVALENT BONDING

  • “Like dissolves like”

  • Water dissolves polar solutes.

  • Water cannot easily dissolve non-polar solutes (i.e. fats, oils)



Capillary action
CAPILLARY ACTION solvent biologically important?

  • Water adheres to sides of tubes and other charged surfaces, rising against force of gravity



Cohesion
COHESION solvent biologically important?

  • Water molecules stick to themselves

  • Because water is cohesive it exhibits the properties of

    • High Heat of Vaporization

    • High Surface Tension


Heat of vaporization
HEAT OF VAPORIZATION solvent biologically important?

  • Because water molecules cohere, more energy is required to break them apart (i.e. evaporation)

  • Non-polar substances have less cohesion and hence lower heats of vaporization


Vaporization of water on a molecular level
VAPORIZATION OF WATER ON A MOLECULAR LEVEL solvent biologically important?



Cat s cradle

STABILITY OF AQUATIC solvent biologically important?

ECOSYSTEMS



Apocrine eccrine glands
Apocrine & Eccrine Glands solvent biologically important?


Surface tension
Surface Tension solvent biologically important?

  • As water interfaces with air at the surface, water molecules cohere, creating a less penetrable surface

  • Surfactants are substances that break surface tension



Rds respiratory distress syndrome
RDS – Respiratory Distress Syndrome solvent biologically important?


Properties of water

Properties of Water solvent biologically important?

Review of Concepts


Cat s cradle

What type of bonding is exhibited between oxygen and hydrogen in water molecules?

A

Van der Waal

B

Polar Covalent

C

Ionic

D

Intermolecular


Cat s cradle

Which property best explains why the bond is polar? hydrogen in water molecules?

A

Mass

B

Density

C

Shape

D

Electronegativity


Cat s cradle

True or False? The tendency of water molecules to stick together is an adhesive property

A

True

B

False


Cat s cradle

Which property of water explains why aquatic ecosystems tend to be more stable in terms of temperature than terrestrial ecosystems?

A

Heat of Vaporization

B

Conductivity

C

Surface Tension

D

Capillary Action


Cat s cradle

True or False? Capillary action is a property of water that is attributed to the adhesive nature of water.

A

True

B

False


Cat s cradle

The ability of some insects to live on the surface of pond (due to the naturally high surface tension of water) can be negatively impacted by which substances? Type your answer!


Cat s cradle

Due to its polar nature, water has the unique ability to break apart other polar substances. This property of water is called...

A

Heat of Vaporization

B

Capillary Action

C

Ability to exist in three states

D

Universal Solvency


Cat s cradle

Carbon Dioxide, like water, contains covalent bonds, yet CO2 does not exhibit any of the properties of water. This is because while the bonds of CO2 are covalent they are not _______.


Cat s cradle

Because these properties of water do not depend upon the amount of matter (unlike mass or pH), these properties are....

A

Extensive

B

Intensive