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Intel Instruction Set (gas)

Intel Instruction Set (gas)

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Intel Instruction Set (gas)

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  1. Intel Instruction Set (gas) • These slides provide the gas format for a subset of the Intel processor instruction set, including: • Operation Mnemonic • Name of Operation • Syntax • Operation • Legal Operands • Examples • Description • Effect on Flag Bits

  2. Gas Addressing Mode Syntax • In this document, we use the gas syntax for each of these addressing modes: • Register reg %eax • Immediate data idata $0x1234 • Direct (memory) mem label (in source) • Register Indirect mem (%eax) • Register Indirect mem disp(%eax) with fixed displacement • Offset (for jcc/jmp) mem label (in source) • Port (for in/out) idata $0x12 (%dx) (%dx)

  3. ADD Integer Addition Syntax: addb src, dest addw src, dest addl src, dest Operation: dest  dest + src Description This instruction adds the contents of the dest and src operands and stores the result in the location specified by dest. The operands must be of the same size. If the operands are signed integers, the OF flag indicates an invalid result. If the operands are unsigned, the CF flag indicates a carry out of the destination. If the operands are unpacked BCD digits, the AF flag indicates a decimal carry. Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: addl $10, %eax addb $10, label addw %bx, %ax addl label, %eax addl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - x

  4. AND Boolean AND Syntax: andb src, dest andw src, dest andl src, dest Operation: dest  dest & src Description This instruction performs a bit by bit AND operation on the dest and src operands and stores the result in the dest operand. The AND operation is defined as: AND 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: andl $10, %eax andb $10, label andw %bx, %ax andl label, %eax andl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF 0 - - - x x - ? - x - 0

  5. CALL Near Procedure Call Syntax: call dest Operation: push %eip %eip  dest Description This instruction pushes the address of the next instruction (EIP) onto the stack. The instruction pointer is then set to the value of the operand. If the operand is an offset, the operand value is a memory addres relative to the current value of %eip. If the operand is a memory address or a register, the subroutine address is taken indirectly from the operand. Flags Legal Operands dest offset %eip  %eip + offset mem %eip  contents of mem reg %eip  contents of reg Examples: call label call (%eax) call %eax OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  6. CLI Clear Interrupt Enable Flag Syntax: cli Operation: IF = 0 Description This instruction clears the interrupt enable flag (IF) and disables the processing of interrupts. This instruction is used to prevent interrupts during short sequences of code that could fail if an interrupt were allowed to occur in the middle of the code sequence. The IF should not be turned off for “long” periods of time as this could prevent the processing of critical I/O operations such as causing incoming data to be overrun before the processor can execute the ISR code required to process it. Flags Legal Operands none Examples: cli OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - 0 - - - - - - - - -

  7. CMP Compare Integers Syntax: cmpb op1, op2 cmpw op1, op2 cmpl op1, op2 Operation: NULL  op2 – op1 Description This instruction subtracts the contents of the src operands from the dest operand and discards the result. Only the eflags register is affected as follows: ConditionSigned CompareUnsigned Compare op1 < op2 ZF == 0 && SF == OF CF == 0 && ZF == 0 op1 <= op2 SF == OF CF == 0 op1 == op2 ZF == 1 ZF == 1 op1 >= op2 ZF ==1 || SF != OF CF == 1 || ZF == 1 op1 > op2 SF != OF CF ==1 Flags Legal Operands op1 op2 idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: cmpl $10, %eax cmpb $10, label cmpw %bx, %ax cmpl label, %eax cmpl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - x

  8. DEC Decrement Syntax: decb op1 decw op1 decl op1 Operation: op1  op1 - 1 Description This instruction subtracts the value 1 from op1. This instruction is often used to decrement indexes and therefore does not affect the carry flag (CF). In all other respects, it is equivalent to the instruction: subb $1, op1 Flags Legal Operands op1 reg mem Examples: decl %eax decl label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - -

  9. IN Input from I/O Port Syntax: inb port, %al inw port, %ax inl port, %eax Operation: reg  src (port) Description This instruction reads a byte, word, or long word into the specified accumulator from the designated I/O port. If you use an immediate data value in the instruction, you can address only the first 256 ports. If the port is specified in the %dx register, you can access any of the 65536 ports. Flags Legal Operands port idata (one byte) (%dx) Examples: inw $0x72, %ax inb (%dx), %al OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  10. INC Increment Syntax: incb op1 incw op1 incl op1 Operation: op1  op1 + 1 Description This instruction adds the value 1 to op1. This instruction is often used to increment indexes and therefore does not affect the carry flag (CF). In other respects, it is equivalent to the instruction: addb $1, op1 Flags Legal Operands op1 reg mem Examples: incl %eax incl label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - -

  11. INT Software Interrupt Syntax: int vector Operation: push %eflags push %cs push %eip TF  0 if (IDT(vector).type = INTERRUPT_GATE) IF  0 %eip  destination (IDT(vector)) Description This instruction is used as a system call. The int 3 instruction is usually encoded as a single byte 0xcc and used as a breakpoint instruction for debuggers. Flags Legal Operands vector idata Examples: int $3 OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - x 0 - - - - - - - -

  12. IRET Interrupt Return Syntax: iret Operation: (if check as option for task return is omitted here) pop %eip pop %cs pop %eflags Description This instruction signals a return from an interrupt. NOTE: All of the pops shown are executed before the processor starts execution at the restored value of %eip. The three pops are handled as an “atomic” operation, i.e. executed as a single unit. Flags Legal Operands none Examples: iret OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x x x x x x - x - x - x

  13. Jcc Jump if Condition Syntax: jcc offset Operation: if (cc) %eip  %eip + sign_extend (offset) Description This instruction executes a conditional jump. It does not change the state of the flags. It executes the jump based on the value(s) of the flag bits as follows: After cmp_ x, y ja jump above CF == 0 && ZF == 0 unsigned y > x jae jump above or equal CF == 0 unsigned y >= x jb jump below CF == 1 unsigned y < x jbe jump below or equal CF == 1 || ZF == 1 unsigned y <= x jc jump if carry CF == 1 jcxz jump if %cx == 0 jecxz jump if %ecx == 0 Legal Operands offset mem Examples: jne label

  14. Jcc (Continued) Jump if Condition Description (Continued) After cmp_ x, y je jump equal ZF == 1 y == x jg jump greater SF == OF && ZF = 0 signed y > x jge jump greater or equal SF == OF signed y >= x jl jump less SF != OF signed y < x jle jump less or equal SF != OF || ZF == 1 signed y <= x jna jump not above (same as jbe) jnae jump not above or equal (same as jb) jnb jump not below (same as jae) jnbe jump not below or equal (same as ja) jnc jump no carry CF == 0 jne jump not equal ZF == 0 y != x jng jump not greater (same as jle) jnge jump not greater or equal (same as jl) jnl jump not less (same as jge) jnle jump not less or equal (same as jg)

  15. Jcc (Continued) Jump if Condition Description (Continued) jno jump no overflow OF == 0 jnp jump no parity PF == 0 jns jump no sign SF == 0 jnz jump not zero ZF == 0 jo jump if overflow OF == 1 jp jump if parity PF == 1 jpe jump if parity even PF == 1 jpo jump if parity odd PF == 0 js jump if sign SF == 1 jz jump if zero ZF == 1 Flags OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  16. JMP Jump Syntax: jmp dest Operation: %eip  dest Description This instruction executes an unconditional jump. It doesn’t change the state of the flags. Flags Legal Operands dest offset %eip  %eip + offset mem %eip  contents of mem reg %eip  contents of reg Examples: jmp label jmp (%eax) jmp %eax OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  17. LEA Load Effective Address Syntax: lea src, dest Operation: dest  address (src) Description This instruction loads the address specified by the memory operand into the destination register. No memory access cycle takes place. It doesn’t change the state of the flags. Flags Legal Operands src dest mem, reg Examples: lea label, %eax OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  18. LOOPcc Decrement %ecx and Branch Syntax: loop offset loopz offset loopnz offset loope offset loopne offset Operation: %ecx  %ecx - 1 if (cc & (%ecx != 0)) %eip  %eip + offset Description These instructions support a decrement and branch operation. For all variants other than LOOP, the decrement and branch is combined with a test on the ZF bit. A loop counter is assumed in the register %ecx. Flags Legal Operands Offset mem Examples: loop label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  19. MOV Move Data Syntax: movb src, dest movw src, dest movl src, dest Operation: dest  src Description This instruction copies the contents of the src operand into dest. Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: movl $10, %eax movb $10, label movw %bx, %ax movl label, %eax movl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  20. NEG Not Syntax: negb op1 negw op1 negl op1 Operation: op1  - op1 Description This instruction performs a two’s complement on the operand. Flags Legal Operands op1 reg mem Examples: negl %eax negl label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - x

  21. NOP No Operation Syntax: nop Operation: (nothing) Description This instruction does nothing except take time to be executed. Hence, it is used in timing loops or where the execution of the next instruction needs to be delayed for some reason, e.g. giving enough time for a hardware register to be ready. Flags Legal Operands none Examples: nop OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  22. NOT Not Syntax: notb op1 notw op1 notl op1 Operation: op1  ~ op1 Description This instruction performs a logical NOT or one’s complement on the operand. The flags are unaffected. Flags Legal Operands op1 reg mem Examples: notl %eax notl label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  23. OR Boolean OR Syntax: orb src, dest orw src, dest orl src, dest Operation: dest  dest | src Description This instruction performs a bit by bit OR operation on the dest and src operands and stores the result in the dest operand. The OR operation is defined as: OR 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: orl $10, %eax orb $10, label orw %bx, %ax orl label, %eax orl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF 0 - - - x x - ? - x - 0

  24. OUT Output to I/O Port Syntax: outb %al, port outw %ax, port outl %eax, port Operation: dest (port)  reg Description This instruction writes a byte, word, or long word from the specified accumulator to the designated I/O port. If you use an immediate data value in the instruction, you can address only the first 256 ports. If the port is specified in the %dx register, you can access any of the 65536 ports. Flags Legal Operands port idata (one byte) (%dx) Examples: outb %al, $0x72 outw %ax, (%dx) OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  25. POP Pop Value off Stack Syntax: popw dest popl dest Operation: dest  contents of mem at %esp %esp  %esp + (w)? 2 : 4 Description This instruction pops the current value at the top of the stack (lowest memory address), stores it in the dest operand, and increments the stack pointer by the size of the value. popl is always preferred to keep the stack pointer aligned on long word boundaries, i.e. addresses with the two LSBs = 0. Flags Legal Operands dest reg mem Examples: popl %eax popw label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  26. PUSH Push Value onto Stack Syntax: pushw src pushl src Operation: %esp  %esp - (w)? 2 : 4 contents of mem at %esp  src Description This instruction decrements the stack pointer by the size of the value, andstores the value of the src operand onto the top of the stack (lowest memory address). pushl is always preferred to keep the stack pointer aligned on long word boundaries, i.e. addresses with the two LSBs = 0. Flags Legal Operands src idata reg mem Examples: pushw $7 pushl %eax pushw label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  27. RET Near Return from Subroutine Syntax: ret count Operation: %eip  pop (%esp) %esp  %esp + count Description This instruction restores the instruction pointer to the value it held before the previous call instruction. The value of the EIP that had been saved on the stack is popped. If the count operand is present, the count value is added to %esp, removing arguments that were pushed onto the stack for the subroutine call. Flags Legal Operands count (none) idata Examples: ret ret $4 OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - - - - - - - - - - -

  28. SAL / SHL Shift Arithmetic Left / Shift Logical Left Syntax: salb count, dest salw count, dest sall count, dest Operation: dest  dest << count Description This instruction shifts the dest operand count bits to the left and fills the LSBs with zeros. It updates the flag bits appropriately. (Arithmetic and logical are the same.) Flags Legal Operands count dest idata reg idata mem %cl reg %cl mem Examples: salw $4, %ax salb $4, label shll %cl, %eax shlw %cl, label 0 CF OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - - - x - x

  29. SAR Shift Arithmetic Right Syntax: sarb count, dest sarw count, dest sarl count, dest Operation: dest  dest >> count (with sign bit extension) Description This instruction shifts the dest operand count bits to the right and fills the MSBs with copies of the sign bit. It updates the flag bits appropriately. (Preserves sign.) Flags Legal Operands count dest idata reg idata mem %cl reg %cl mem Examples: sarw $4, %ax sarb $4, label sarl %cl, %eax sarw %cl, label CF OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - - - x - x

  30. SHR Shift Logical Right Syntax: shrb count, dest shrw count, dest shrl count, dest Operation: dest  dest >> count (without sign bit extension) Description This instruction shifts the dest operand count bits to the right and fills the MSBs with zeros. It updates the flag bits appropriately. (Does not preserve sign.) Flags Legal Operands count dest idata reg idata mem %cl reg %cl mem Examples: shrw $4, %ax shrb $4, label shrl %cl, %eax shrw %cl, label 0 CF OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - - - x - x

  31. STI Set Interrupt Enable Flag Syntax: sti Operation: IF = 1 Description This instruction sets the interrupt enable flag (IF) and enables the processing of interrupts. This instruction is used when the code is ready to process interrupts. Flags Legal Operands none Examples: sti OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF - - 1 - - - - - - - - -

  32. SUB Integer Subtraction Syntax: subb src, dest subw src, dest subl src, dest Operation: dest  dest - src Description This instruction subtracts the contents of the src operand from the dest operand and stores the result in the location specified by dest. The operands must be of the same size. If the operands are signed integers, the OF flag indicates an invalid result. If the operands are unsigned, the CF flag indicates a borrow into the destination. If the operands are unpacked BCD digits, the AF flag indicates a decimal borrow. Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: subl $10, %eax subb $10, label subw %bx, %ax subl label, %eax subl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF x - - - x x - x - x - x

  33. TEST Logical Compare Syntax: testb src, dest testw src, dest testl src, dest Operation: NULL  dest & src Description This instruction ANDs the contents of the src operand with the dest operand and discards the result. It sets the flags. Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg reg, reg mem, reg Examples: testl $10, %eax testw %bx, %ax testl label, %eax OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF 0 - - - x x - ? - x - 0

  34. XOR Boolean XOR Syntax: xorb src, dest xorw src, dest xorl src, dest Operation: dest  dest ^ src Description This instruction performs a bit by bit XOR operation on the dest and src operands and stores the result in the dest operand. The XOR operation is defined as: XOR 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Flags Legal Operands src dest idata, reg idata, mem reg, reg mem, reg reg, mem Examples: xorl $10, %eax xorb $10, label xorw %bx, %ax xorl label, %eax xorl %eax, label OF DF IF TF SF ZF AF PF CF 0 - - - x x - ? - x - 0