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Light Sport Aircraft. Airworthiness Requirements SAAA Authorised Persons Familiarisation training Southport Queensland 23 September 2006 Uncontrolled Document . What is an LSA . New category of aircraft (does not replace any other existing category)

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light sport aircraft
Light Sport Aircraft

Airworthiness Requirements

SAAA Authorised Persons Familiarisation training

Southport Queensland

23 September 2006

Uncontrolled Document

what is an lsa
What is an LSA
  • New category of aircraft (does not replace any other existing category)
    • Existing registered aircraft are NOT applicable
  • Production or kit built (no 51% rule)
  • MTOW 600 kg (650 kg for sea planes)
  • Max 2 person
  • Single engine – Non turbine
  • Certificated by the manufacturer
  • Continuing airworthiness controlled by the manufacturer
lsa project history
LSA Project History
  • FAA issues NPRM 31 January 2002
  • CASA initiates LSA Project October 2002
  • CASA NPRM issued June 25 2003
    • 27 responses received
    • Overall positive response to the proposal
  • FAA LSA aircraft rule commences Sept 1 2004
    • ASTM standards not available until March 2005
lsa project history1
LSA Project History
  • LSA Project Team conducted a Safety Risk Analysis of the draft regulations
  • Advisory Circulars published for comment on CASA website July 2005
    • AC 21-41 LSA CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS
      • http://www.casa.gov.au/rules/1998casr/021/021c41.pdf
    • AC 21-42 LSA MANUFACTURER’S REQUIREMENTS
      • http://www.casa.gov.au/rules/1998casr/021/021c42.pdf
lsa project history2
LSA Project History
  • Amendments to CASRs made 15 December 2005
    • LSA aircraft eligible to operate under VH registration
  • Amendments to CAO made 3 January 2006
    • LSA aircraft eligible to operate under the sports organisations (RAA, HGFA, ASRA)
light sport aircraft airworthiness project team
Light Sport Aircraft Airworthiness Project Team
  • CASA staff
  • Industry representation
    • Sports organisations
    • Manufacturers
    • Other specialists,
      • Authorised Persons, Reg 35 engineers.
light sport aircraft definition
Light Sport Aircraft Definition
  • MTOW 600Kg
    • 650Kg for seaplanes
    • Lighter-than-air gross weight of 560kg
  • 2 person
  • Unpressurised cabin
  • Stall speed 45 knots Vso
  • Single engine non-turbine
  • Fixed undercarriage
    • Except glider may have retractable
    • Amphibian may have repositionable landing gear
  • If glider Vne of 135 CAS
variation with faa definition
Variation with FAA definition
  • Stall speed
    • VS0 45 knots (CASR)
      • Stall speed with flaps
    • VS1 45 knots (FAA)
      • Stall speed in clean configuration
  • Never exceed speed Vne for glider
    • 120 knots (FAA)
    • 135 knots (CASR)
  • Propeller
    • Fixed pitch or ground adjustable (FAA)
    • No requirements (CASR)
  • Lighter-than-air
    • 560 kg (CASR)
    • 300 kg (FAA)
light sport aircraft categories
Light Sport Aircraft Categories
  • Fixed Wing
  • Weight Shift
  • Powered Parachutes
  • Gyroplanes
  • Gliders
  • Lighter-Than-Air
what is not an lsa
What is not an LSA
  • Hang gliders
  • Para gliders
  • Multi-engine aircraft
  • Helicopters
  • Complex aircraft
    • Retractable undercarriages
    • Turbine engine
benefits of lsa
Benefits of LSA
  • Purchase costs reduced.
  • Improves the entry process for LSA.
  • Potential export markets.
    • Estimated USA market will be 6,500 aircraft in next 5 years and 800 a year after that.
    • Enables Australian manufacturers to have access to USA LSA market.
  • CASA’s minimal involvement.
    • More staff available for higher priority work.
    • Regulatory responsibilities and requirements transferred to the manufacturer.
responsibilities
Responsibilities
  • Manufacturer responsible for
    • Certification
      • Shows compliance with LSA standards
    • Continuing airworthiness.
      • Approval of major repairs/modifications
      • Assessment of defects
      • Issue of Service Directives
      • Issue of Service Bulletins etc
      • Database of aircraft owners
responsibilities1
Responsibilities
  • CASA responsible for
    • approving LSA standards
      • Participate with industry in periodically reviewing LSA standards
    • Overseeing authorised persons who issue certificates of airworthiness
    • Registration of aircraft if CASA registered.
    • Impose conditions or directions, if necessary, in the interests of safety.
responsibilities2
Responsibilities
  • Authorised Persons responsible for
    • Verifying manufacturer’s statement of compliance
    • Ensuring operating instructions, maintenance manuals etc are available
    • Inspecting the aircraft is in a condition for safe operation
    • Issuing a special certificate of airworthiness.
responsibilities3
Responsibilities
  • Operator of a Production LSA is responsible for ensuring
    • The maintenance and inspections are in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.
    • All major repairs, modifications and maintenance are approved by the manufacturer
    • The aircraft is operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating instructions
responsibilities4
Responsibilities
  • Operator of a Production LSA is responsible for ensuring (cont’d)
    • All manufacturer’s service directives are carried out
    • The aircraft has a warning placard and passengers are informed of the warning
    • Applicable equipment ADs (if any) are complied with.
      • RAA aircraft exempt from ADs (covered by technical manual)
casr part 21 amendment
CASR Part 21 Amendment
  • Enable qualified LSA manufacturers to certify aircraft complies with LSA standards
    • design, quality assurance, production testing and continuing airworthiness.
casr part 21 amendment1
CASR Part 21 Amendment
  • Enable CASA or an Authorised Person (AP) to issue a special airworthiness certificate for production LSA.
  • Enable CASA or an AP to issue an experimental certificate for kit built LSA
    • Must be produced by a manufacturer of production aircraft.
      • Cannot produce a one off kit built aircraft
      • There is no 51% rule for kit LSA
qualified manufacturer
Qualified Manufacturer
  • Has a current production certificate for an aircraft ; or
  • Has made a written declaration indicating
    • Contracted an experienced engineer in light aircraft design
    • Suitable facility and tools
    • Trained, experienced and skilled staff
lsa standards
LSA Standards
  • Consist of
    • ASTM consensus standards (approved by FAA)
      • design,
      • quality assurance,
      • production acceptance test and
      • continued operational safety system
    • Other acceptable design standards
      • JAR VLA, BCARS etc
astm standards
ASTM standards
  • FAA asked ASTM to facilitate consensus standards for LSA
  • Committee of manufacturers, aviation sports bodies and regulators.
  • Each aircraft category responsible for developing their own standards
  • So far 27 standards have been issued
    • Listed in Advisory Circular 21-42
lsa certificate of airworthiness
LSA Certificate of Airworthiness
  • Two types of Certificate
    • Special Certificate of Airworthiness for LSA
      • Production Aircraft
    • Experimental Certificate for LSA
      • Kit built aircraft
      • Production aircraft that do not comply with Continuing AW requirements
production lsa
Production LSA
  • Special C of A is issued if:
    • Aircraft manufactured by a qualified LSA manufacturer
    • Applicant gives CASA or AP
      • Statement of compliance signed by the manufacturer
      • Aircraft operating instructions, maintenance and inspection procedures and flight training supplement issued by the manufacturer
        • These are returned to the applicant
      • If manufactured overseas
        • Aircraft manufactured in a Contracting State and is eligible for a C of A
    • CASA or AP finds the aircraft in a condition for safe operation
statement of compliance
Statement of Compliance
  • Aircraft make, model, serial number and date of manufacture
  • Aircraft complies with LSA standards for
    • Design
    • Manufacture
    • Production acceptance testing
    • Continuing airworthiness
  • Make available operating instructions, maintenance and inspection manual and flight training manual
  • Aircraft is manufactured by a qualified manufacturer
conditions for special c of a for lsa
Conditions for Special C of A for LSA
  • The special C of A LSA stops being in force
    • If a major modification/repair is not authorised
      • by the manufacturer or
      • by a person appointed by CASA if the manufacturer no longer exists
    • If the aircraft does not comply with the LSA standards
modifications
Modifications
  • ASTM Maintenance Standard, F2483 -05, defines any repair, alteration or maintenance for which instructions to complete the task are excluded from the maintenance manual(s) supplied to the consumer are considered major.
  • Major repairs, alterations etc must be approved by the manufacturer.
    • This includes CAR 35 modifications.
experimental lsa
Experimental LSA
  • Experimental Certificate under CASR 21.191(j) - Kit built aircraft
      • Manufacturer’s statement of compliance
      • Assembly instruction from the manufacturer.
      • Operating instructions, aircraft maintenance and inspection procedures and flight training supplement
      • The same make and model as a production aircraft
      • Must satisfy the LSA definition
experimental lsa1
Experimental LSA
  • Experimental Certificate under CASR 21.191(k)
    • These production aircraft that no longer satisfy the LSA requirement applicable for Special C of A
      • Not complied with Manufacturer’s CAW requirements, or
      • Not complied with safety directives or
      • Has unauthorised modifications
    • Must still satisfy the LSA definition
airworthiness directives
Airworthiness Directives
  • In general, CASA will not issue ADs for LSA models.
  • Some specific ADs may still be applicable to VH registered aircraft
    • Aeronautical products
      • Type certificate engines and propellers
      • Equipment such as transponders, flight instruments, radio and navigational
cao amendments
CAO amendments
  • Amendments to CAO 95 series have been issued to allow the sport organisations to operate
    • Production LSA and
    • Kit LSA.
  • These requirements mirror the LSA requirements in CASR Part 21
operating limitations
Operating limitations
  • Experimental/kit LSA Category
    • No change to current Experimental kit limitations
  • Production aircraft
    • Private operations
    • Flight training
    • Glider towing
    • Hire
operating limitations production lsa
Operating limitations - Production LSA
  • Must not operate unless
    • Maintenance has been carried out IAW manufacturer’s requirements
      • Maintenance CAO 95.56 exempts certain requirements in the regulation for VH aircraft only.
    • Aircraft inspected every 12 months
      • If undergoing flight training, hire etc every 100 hours
    • All major mods/repairs authorised by the manufacturer
    • Placard warning is displayed and each passenger is informed of the warning
operating limitations production lsa1
Operating limitations - Production LSA
  • Unless approved by the manufacturer the aircraft must not be operated contrary to
    • the operating instructions
    • Safety Direction issued by the manufacturer
      • This has the same affect as an AD
operating limitations production lsa2
Operating limitations - Production LSA
  • CASA may impose additional operating limitations in the interests of safety
    • CASA must give this to each registered operator of the aircraft
operating limitations production aircraft
Operating limitations - Production aircraft
  • In the case that a manufacturer no longer exists
    • Major modifications/repairs, safety directives, maintenance and inspection procedures can be issued by a person appointed by CASA.
    • If no person is appointed by CASA, these aircraft will have to operate under an experimental certificate
process for operating an lsa under raa
Process for operating an LSA under RAA
  • Purchase a Light Sport Aircraft
    • Production
    • Kit
  • Make sure the manufacturer/distributor supplies
    • A Statement of Compliance signed by the manufacturer
    • Operating Manual
    • Maintenance manual
    • Flight test supplement
process for operating an lsa under raa1
Process for operating an LSA under RAA
  • Register the Aircraft with RAA
  • Fill out an application for a C of A
  • Contact an Authorised person to issue the CofA
    • Authorised person will need to ensure it complies with the LSA requirements and is in a safe condition for operation.
    • If it is a kit the AP also needs to ensure that a production aircraft of the same make and model has been issued with a special C of A.
  • The AP issues a C of A
  • Go fly the aircraft